Presentation on theme: "The Origins of the Cold War"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Origins of the Cold War Chapter 19: Section 1
2 1945--A Critical Year Yalta Conference United Nations created Poland = most difficult issueStalin wanted Communist governmentPoland protected USSRUnited Nations createdTruman takes commandThe Potsdam ConferenceTruman’s 1st meeting w/ StalinTold Stalin of A-bomb
3 Conflicting Postwar Goals: United States Americans fought to bring democracy and economic opportunity to conquered nations of Europe.An economically strong and politically open world created markets for American products.
4 Conflicting Postwar Goals: Soviet Union Lost 17 million in warDetermined to re-build protecting own interestsEstablished satellite nationsCreated buffer zone on western borderLooked to spread communism across world
5 Soviets Tighten Their Hold Political control over nations freed from Nazi control.Poland elections don’t happen for 2 years.Nations to fall to CommunismAlbania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, East Germany, Finland, & Yugoslavia
7 The Iron Curtain1946 Speech, Stalin predicts communism to triumph over capitalism.Churchill coined term Iron CurtainDescribe communist and non-communist lifeSpeeches set the tone for the Cold War.
8 ContainmentGeorge Keenan (American Diplomat in USSR) said U.S. policy needed to be a long-term patient but firm containment of USSR expansion.Eastern Europe was lost, but to prevent Communism from spreading further.
9 The Truman DoctrineCalled on the United States to take the leadership role in the prevention of the spread of communism.Policy said that U.S. would support countries who are resisting outside pressures (communism).
11 The Marshall PlanSecretary of State George C. Marshall unveiled this policy.Called for nations of Europe to draw up a program for economic recovery after WWII.U.S. would support it financially.Created good economies = markets for U.S. trade.
12 The Berlin AirliftGermany split into East Germany (Communist) and West Germany (Democratic).Berlin split as well (West Berlin was in East Germany).New currency in East Germany created blockade of goods.Created a shortage in W. Berlin.Lifted goods into Berlin by plane (13,000 tons/day)
13 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Looked to United Nations to help w/ postwar protectionSoviet Union veto powerCanadian foreign minister Louis St. Laurent proposed creating an “association of democratic peace-loving states”
14 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cont’d… U.S. showed great interestApril 1949, U.S. joined 10 other countries to create NATOEach nation agreed to collective security, or mutual military assistance
15 Communist Advances The Soviet Atomic Threat China Falls to Communists U.S. has evidence USSR has nuclear capabilitiesTruman asks for superiority (hydrogen or thermonuclear)Federal Civil Defense AdministrationChina Falls to CommunistsMao Zedong defeats Jiang Jieshi even w/ U.S. supportPeople’s Republic of ChinaStain on the Truman administrationCalled for greater protection of the rest of Asia
16 The Cold War at Home The Loyalty Program Government officials launch programs to keep communism out of U.S.Many Americans were anxiousHouse Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)Investigated disloyalty on eve of WWIIProbed government agencies and Hollywood movie industryHollywood had created pro-communist films
17 The Cold War at Home cont’d… The Hollywood TenGroup of Hollywood big names asked to testify in front of HUACThose who refused to answer were cited for contemptStudios compiled a blacklistThe McCarran-Walter ActDiscriminated against immigrants from Asia and Southern EuropeTruman vetoed billCongress passed it over the veto
18 The Cold War at Home cont’d… Spy Cases Inflame the NationAlger Hiss as Soviet Spy (4 yrs. Prison)Julius and Ethel RosenbergAccused of passing Atomic SecretsExecuted in 1953