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The Origins of the Cold War

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1 The Origins of the Cold War
Chapter 19: Section 1

2 1945--A Critical Year Yalta Conference United Nations created
Poland = most difficult issue Stalin wanted Communist government Poland protected USSR United Nations created Truman takes command The Potsdam Conference Truman’s 1st meeting w/ Stalin Told Stalin of A-bomb

3 Conflicting Postwar Goals: United States
Americans fought to bring democracy and economic opportunity to conquered nations of Europe. An economically strong and politically open world created markets for American products.

4 Conflicting Postwar Goals: Soviet Union
Lost 17 million in war Determined to re-build protecting own interests Established satellite nations Created buffer zone on western border Looked to spread communism across world

5 Soviets Tighten Their Hold
Political control over nations freed from Nazi control. Poland elections don’t happen for 2 years. Nations to fall to Communism Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, East Germany, Finland, & Yugoslavia

6 Cold War Divisions in Europe

7 The Iron Curtain 1946 Speech, Stalin predicts communism to triumph over capitalism. Churchill coined term Iron Curtain Describe communist and non-communist life Speeches set the tone for the Cold War.

8 Containment George Keenan (American Diplomat in USSR) said U.S. policy needed to be a long-term patient but firm containment of USSR expansion. Eastern Europe was lost, but to prevent Communism from spreading further.

9 The Truman Doctrine Called on the United States to take the leadership role in the prevention of the spread of communism. Policy said that U.S. would support countries who are resisting outside pressures (communism).

10 The Cold War Heats Up Chapter 19: Section 2

11 The Marshall Plan Secretary of State George C. Marshall unveiled this policy. Called for nations of Europe to draw up a program for economic recovery after WWII. U.S. would support it financially. Created good economies = markets for U.S. trade.

12 The Berlin Airlift Germany split into East Germany (Communist) and West Germany (Democratic). Berlin split as well (West Berlin was in East Germany). New currency in East Germany created blockade of goods. Created a shortage in W. Berlin. Lifted goods into Berlin by plane (13,000 tons/day)

13 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Looked to United Nations to help w/ postwar protection Soviet Union veto power Canadian foreign minister Louis St. Laurent proposed creating an “association of democratic peace-loving states”

14 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cont’d…
U.S. showed great interest April 1949, U.S. joined 10 other countries to create NATO Each nation agreed to collective security, or mutual military assistance

15 Communist Advances The Soviet Atomic Threat China Falls to Communists
U.S. has evidence USSR has nuclear capabilities Truman asks for superiority (hydrogen or thermonuclear) Federal Civil Defense Administration China Falls to Communists Mao Zedong defeats Jiang Jieshi even w/ U.S. support People’s Republic of China Stain on the Truman administration Called for greater protection of the rest of Asia

16 The Cold War at Home The Loyalty Program
Government officials launch programs to keep communism out of U.S. Many Americans were anxious House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) Investigated disloyalty on eve of WWII Probed government agencies and Hollywood movie industry Hollywood had created pro-communist films

17 The Cold War at Home cont’d…
The Hollywood Ten Group of Hollywood big names asked to testify in front of HUAC Those who refused to answer were cited for contempt Studios compiled a blacklist The McCarran-Walter Act Discriminated against immigrants from Asia and Southern Europe Truman vetoed bill Congress passed it over the veto

18 The Cold War at Home cont’d…
Spy Cases Inflame the Nation Alger Hiss as Soviet Spy (4 yrs. Prison) Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Accused of passing Atomic Secrets Executed in 1953

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