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The Cold War 1945-1991 By Ms. Joseph.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1991 By Ms. Joseph."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War By Ms. Joseph

2 Cold War Competition and tension between the
US and USSR for power and influence in the world without any direct fighting Competitions: Politics – Democracy vs. Communism (Totalitarianism) Economics – Capitalism vs. Communism or Mixed Economy vs. Command Economy Technology Arms Race (weapons & military) Space Race Influence among 3rd World Nations Military Alliances – NATO vs. Warsaw Pact

3 Different Values USA Democracy Freedom Capitalism Individualism USSR
Totalitarianism Equality Socialism Collectivism USA rules, USSR drools We are the Best, better than The West

4 “Weapons” of the Cold War
Threat of Nuclear Attack Propaganda Sending Economic and Military Aid to Weaker Nations

5 YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin

6 Yalta Creation of United Nations Division of Germany into 4 Sectors
Russian agree to help defeat Japan in exchange for land Stalin agrees to free elections in occupied territories

7 POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin

8 Potsdam Stalin refused free elections, instead installed communist governments in occupied territories. US has the A-bomb and are anxious to restrict Russia Finalize agreement to divide Germany and Berlin Demilitarize Germany Reparations from own war zones

9 Cold War Foreign Policies
US Truman Doctrine Containment Marshall Plan NATO United Nations USSR Soviet Satellites – Iron Curtain Warsaw Pact United Nations

10 Containment Containment – US Foreign Policy to keep communism within its existing borders Containment became the driving force behind US efforts to stop the spread of communism either directly or indirectly around the world: Greece Turkey Berlin Korea China Vietnam

11 Truman Doctrine Problem:
Communist Rebels in Greece Soviets “bullying” Turkey Truman - USA will help (economic and military aid) any country fighting communism Greece and Turkey, received $400M first and successfully defeated communism

12 Marshall Plan Marshall Plan - offered huge sums of money to enable the war shattered economies of Europe to rebuild Purpose – to generate economic prosperity in order to avoid the appeal of Communism Catch -$ had to be spent on products made in the US USSR - rejected the Marshall Plan thinking it was a plan to boost the US economy and make countries dependent on US

13 NATO and Warsaw Pact NATO Warsaw Pact
Military Alliance between the US and western Europe An attack against one nation would be considered an attack against all Warsaw Pact Military Alliance between the USSR and Eastern Europe Pledge to defend one another in the event of an attack

14 Divided Germany Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill
to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West. Divided Germany

15 Berlin Blockade Western Allies attempt to unite the Western Sectors of Germany and Berlin and form an independent West Germany with a common currency West Berlin - democratic and economic success deep within the Communist zone. Berlin Blockade – 1948 Stalin tries to starve the city to force the west out of West Berlin USSR cut off all ground access to Berlin, leaving 2M West Berliners without food, electricity and fuel

16 Berlin Airlift Purpose – to prevent the takeover of West Berlin by the USSR US sent 2M tons of supplies to West Berlin on Cargo Plans Results: US looks like a hero Success for containment

17 Communism in China Chinese Civil War Communist – Mao Zedong
Support of peasants (majority) Promised land reforms Nationalist- Chiang Kai-shek Refused to fix countries problems US sends $3B in aid to help Nationalists

18 Chinese Civil War Results:
Chiang Kai-shek fled to Formosa establishes the Republic of China Allies with US Mao Zedong established the Peoples Republic of China Allies with USSR Loss for Containment

19 Korea 1945 Post WWII North and South Korea Divided at the 38 Parallel
North Korea occupied by USSR South Korea occupied by US Plan to create an independent, unified Korea North and South Korea Divided at the 38 Parallel

20 Korean War June ,000 N. Korea (Communist)Troops invade S. Korea June Truman orders Naval & Air Force to Korea without formal declaration of war & UN Security Council approves military aid to South Korea North Korea South Korea

21 Korean War North Korea/Chinese Troops cross 38 Parallel North Korea
MacArthur North Korea South Korea/UN Troops Cornered at Pusan North Korea/Chinese Troops cross 38 Parallel South Korea/UN Troops *MacArthur Fired for insubordination North Korea pined at Chinese Border South Korea/UN Troops *Truman wants LIMITED WAR

22 Korean War Results: Stalemate at 38th Parallel
Successful Containment of Communism North Korea – Communist South Korea – Democracy Truman expanded the Power of the Presidency by sending troops without a formal declaration of war Congress doubled spending on the arms race North Korea South Korea/UN Troops

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