4 Origins of the Cold WarAt the end of the Second World War, relations between the USA and the USSR deteriorated. These two powers were rivals and the tensions between them were called the Cold War.The Cold War began as a result of the suspicions the democratic West had about the USSR and vice versa. It was an ideological conflict!
5 Why did the US and the USSR emerge as the 2 Super powers after ww2? USA and USSR had large populationsFrance and Britain (the original 2 superpowers) were devastated by the war.USA was industrialized.France and Britain did not have the resources that US hadCommunist revolution going on in China – Chinese were busy.USSR and USA both had large military power. USA had atomic bomb monopoly until USSR had large army.
6 YALTA (in the USSR)Date: Feb 1945Present: Churchill,Roosevelt and Stalin
7 Wartime Conferences: Yalta February, 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met in Yalta, in the Crimea. This conference dealt mainly with the settlement of post-war Europe.Here it was agreed that Germany should be disarmed, demilitarized and divided into zones to be occupied by Britain, USA and Russia (a French zone was added later)Berlin was to be divided into zones as well. Allegedly, FD Roosevelt was too ill to withstand Stalin’s demands. His successor, Harry S Truman, took a tougher line.
10 Dividing BerlinThe Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats.Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
12 POTSDAM (Germany)Date: July 1945Present: Churchill,Truman and Stalin
13 Wartime Conferences: Potsdam In July, 1945 Truman, Attlee and Stalin met in Potsdam, a suburb of Berlin.The war with Germany was over but no agreement had been reached about her long term future.The question of reparations was raised and each country was permitted to extract reparations from its zone. Only the USSR took any.
14 Potsdam Decisions made at Potsdam: the division of Germany and Austria into 4 zone occupations (British, French, American and Soviet)The allowance that free elections would be held in PolandGermany had to pay 20 $ billion in reparations to the AlliesRestructuring of the German economy towards agriculture, limiting military productionAn agreement that said that USSR could enter the war against Japan. WHAT??????Some historians see the Potsdam conference was the beginning of the COLD WAR. Can you think of why?
15 New Nations created after WWII India and Pakistan – received independence from Britain and separated into two (both aligned themselves with the USA)Vietnam – declared independent from the French (North-USSR, South-USA)China- becomes communist in 1949 (aligned itself with the USSR)
16 How did the creation of new nations affect the world? Created instabilityDivided North and South, East and West.Created Spheres of influence: where countries either support the US or the USSR.Affected the 2 superpowers – they were constantly competing to influence other countries for their gain.
17 The Iron CurtainA term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separation of the communist lands of East Europe from the West.
18 The Arms RaceBy the time of the Potsdam Conference the West had the bomb and were anxious to restrict Russia’s acquisition of the technology.The USSR was annoyed not to know about America’s atom bomb. The British had been informed during the Potsdam Conference.The nuclear bomb gave America a lead expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies,” was a shock.The USSR gained the atom bomb in 1949 and both sides began to stockpile arms.