Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction 1863-1877 Who Should Control Reconstruction—Congress or President/VP? * Lincoln favored “lenient” Reconstruction. * Proclamation of Amnesty."— Presentation transcript:
Who Should Control Reconstruction—Congress or President/VP? * Lincoln favored “lenient” Reconstruction. * Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction- 10% Plan: pardon all Confederates who would swear allegiance to Union * As soon as 10% pledged, state could create new state gov’t and send congressmen to Washington D.C. * Assassination of Lincoln left lots of issues unresolved
Freedman’s Bureau The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Land, often referred to as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department on March 3, 1865. The Bureau supervised all relief and educational activities relating to refugees (poor whites) and freedmen (former slaves), including issuing rations, clothing and medicine Built Schools—many of whom were forerunners of the “Historically Black Colleges” in the South.
RADICAL REPUBLICANS ** Unhappy with Lincoln’s leniency **Wanted to destroy political power of former slave owners **Grant African Americans FULL citizenship and the right to vote Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, Ben Wade
Andrew Johnson-Lincoln’s VP and NOW the President Reconstruction Plan similar to Lincoln’s but wanted to break planters’/wealthy landowner’s power Pardoned 13,000 former Confederates: “white men alone should manage the South” Vetoed Civil Rights Act of 1866 -full citizenship for African Americans and prevented states from passing discriminatory laws—black codes ’
Radicals Respond Impeached President Johnson-feared he was blocking Reconstruction—one vote shy of removing him from office Ratified 14 th and 15 th amendment Republican Party in South becomes dissected: –Scalawags: white southerners –Carpetbaggers: Northerners who moved south after the war -African Americans: largest group
Major Achievements of Reconstruction 13 th, 14 th and 15 th Amendments—laid foundation for Civil Rights Legislation African American participation in public life-Hiram Revels (1 st African American Senator) First public school systems in South Readmission of Southern States
Failure of Reconstruction Many whites refused to fundamentally change their attitude and accept free blacks Southern whites were violently opposed to black rights; many in north were indifferent Rise of KKK Land Reform—blacks (and poor whites) left to farm tenancy, sharecroppers…No 40 acres and a mule
1876 Presidential Election Disputed results between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden…Democratic candidate Tilden won popular vote/1 vote short in electoral, but South agreed to allow Hayes presidency if federal troops withdrew from South…Reconstruction had ended.
What role did African Americans play in Reconstruction? Registered to vote & became politically involved-community leaders Supported Republicans for a ‘voice’ in the South Worked hard to improve life Founded churches/schools