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Experimental Particle Physics

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Presentation on theme: "Experimental Particle Physics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Experimental Particle Physics
Particle Interactions and Detectors Lecture 2 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

2 How do we detect Particles?
Particle Types Charged (e-/K-/π-) Photons (γ) Electromagnetic (e-) Hadronic (K-/π-/μ-) Muonic (μ-) Gravitons ! Interaction with matter Ionisation Loss Radiation Loss Photon Absorption Electromagnetic Showers Hadronic Showers Cherenkov Radiation Transition Radiation In general, we measure the energy lost as the particle passes through a medium. 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

3 Transverse slice through CMS detector
Click on a particle type to visualise that particle in CMS Press “escape” to exit 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

4 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

5 Which particles interact with which subdetector?
(caveat: some particles leave a small signal in a subdetector e.g. muon in EM calorimeter) Detector Electron Charged Hadron (K+/π+) Muon Neutral Hadron (π0) Photon Tracking Yes Cherenkov Transition Radiation EM Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon Detector 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

6 Charged Particle Detectors
Physics Ionisation Mean Energy Loss Fluctuations Cherenkov Light Transition Radiation Detectors Emulsion Bubble Chambers Scintillation Detectors Wire Chambers Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) Geiger Muller Solid State Devices Time Projection (TPC) Resistive Plate Counters (RPC) Limited Streamer Tubes (LST) Cherenkov Transition Radiation (TRD) 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

7 Ionisation and Atomic Excitation
Heavy Charged particles interact with electrons in material as they pass Can be calculated: The Bethe-Bloch Equation Ok for energies between 6 MeV and 6 GeV Function only of β (approximately) Maximum energy loss in single collision Constant Stopping Power Ionisation Constant for material 1/2 Density correction 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

8 Stopping Power 1/β2 ln(β2) Ionisation Constant 21st April 2008
Fergus Wilson, RAL

9 Mean Energy Loss in different materials
High energy ~ ln  Low energy ~ 1/β2 Distance units: g cm-2 Minimum at 3 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

10 Energy Fluctuations Bethe-Block only gives mean, not most probable
Large high energy tail – δ rays Landau distribution: δ-rays : electrons produced by the Bethe-Block equation that have sufficient energy to ionize further atoms through subsequent interactions on their own. 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

11 Particle Identification by Energy Loss (dE/dx)
K μ p e Results from a Drift Chamber (BaBar) Results from a Time Projection Chamber (PEP4/9) 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

12 Ionisation Detectors Ionisation used to detect particles in different ways: Observe physical or chemical change due to ions Detect energy from recombination - scintillation Collect and measure free charges - electronic 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

13 Emulsions CHORUS (neutrinos) Expose film to particles and develop
Natural radioactivity was discovered this way Still occasionally used for very high precision, low rate experiments Similar technique in etched plastics CHORUS (neutrinos) 800kg of emulsion 4 stacks of 8 modules each 35 x 70 x 2.9 cm3 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

14 Bubble Chambers (1960s-1970s) BEBC 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL
Ionisation trail nucleates bubbles in superheated liquid Liquid H2 (or similar) close to boiling point Suddenly reduce pressure. Fire beam into chamber Take photo Cloud chamber similar: ions nucleate condensation in saturated vapour 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

15 Scintillation Detectors
Detect photons from electronic recombination of ions Organic (plastic) Inorganic (crystal or glass) doping normally required Not very efficient ~1 photon/100eV Light carried to sensitive photodetectors Fast, cheap and flexible 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

16 Wire Chambers +V e- Free electrons will be attracted to anode Electric field near thin wire increases Secondary ionisation may start to occur avalanche! A typical gas detector will have ~20 primary ions per cm created by a track. 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

17 Gas Amplification Avalanche fills volume Maximum gain ~107 Arcing
Proportional Chambers Avalanche fills volume Maximum gain ~107 Arcing Geiger Muller Tube Resistive Plate Chambers Full charge collection Start of avalanche region 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

18 Geiger Region Geiger Counter Spark Chamber
short bias pulse->localise breakdown Streamer Chamber Large volume, transparent electrodes 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

19 MWPC Need better idea for large volume coverage at high rates
Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber Fast Ion Drift Velocity ~ 50 km/s (50 μm/ns) Resolution ~pitch/12 x from anode y from ions at segmented cathode plane 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

20 Drift Chambers Electron drift speed depends on electric field and gas
Time delay of hit gives distance from sense anode Extra wires can be used to separate drift and avalanche regions Typical values: drift distance ~cm drift velocity ~ 50 km/s (50 μm/ns) drift time ~s precision ~100 μm 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

21 Stereo Readout Good z resolution Good pattern recognition
Need readout along length Ghost hits Good pattern recognition Readout from ends Poor z resolution 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

22 BaBar Drift Chamber Open Cell Drift Chamber 2.8 m long
Gas volume ~ 5.6 m3 7100 anode wires Axial and stereo ~50,000 wires in total 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

23 Time Projection Chamber
Ingredients: Gas E.g.: Ar + 10 to 20 % CH4 E-field E ~ 100 to 200 V/cm B-field as big as possible to measure momentum to limit electron diffusion Wire chamber to detect projected tracks Timing gives z measurement Long drift distances ~ metres gas volume with E & B fields B y drift E x z charged track wire chamber to detect projected tracks 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

24 Detector with TPC 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

25 General considerations for Wire Chambers
Gas, voltage and geometry must be chosen carefully. precision, amplification, avalanche characteristics... Chambers can be damaged. External magnetic field influences behaviour. Must be measured and understood. MWPC: fast, reliable often used for triggering Drift/TPC: large volume, reasonably precise high incident fluxes can cause “short circuit” long readout time Need other solution for high rates and/or extreme precision 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

26 Silicon Strip Detector
Particle physics needs detectors which can determine the position of particles with an accuracy of 0.01 mm, have minimal thickness (0.3mm), and have very fast ( second) time response. Silicon, a semiconductor, can be fabricated in two forms; n type, with a surplus of electron sites in the crystal lattice, and p type, with a deficit of electron sites in the crystal lattice. The majority of silicon detectors consist of n type bulk material. The back face has an aluminium contact over the complete surface. The front face has p type silicon strips implanted in the surface. These p type strips aluminium strips on their surface. The aluminium strips are separated from their associated p type silicon strips by a thin insulator. An electric field is applied between the p strips and the back face. When a charged particle passes through a silicon detector it creates ionisation in the bulk of the silicon. This frees electrons from the atoms of the silicon and leaving these atoms with an electron vacancy. These vacancies are referred to as "holes". The "holes" "drift" in the electric field towards the negatively charged p type strips. The electrons "drift" towards the positively charged back plane. When the "holes" reach the p type strip they are collected and induce a measurable charge on the associated aluminium strip. The aluminium strips are connected to sensitive electronic read out channels. By recording which electronic channel fired, it is possible to determine where the charged particle passed through the detector. 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

27 Solid State Detectors + - V Detect ionisation charges in solids
Implanted p-strips μm pitch Resolution = pitch/√12 Detect ionisation charges in solids high density → large dE/dx signal mechanically simple can be very precise Semiconductors small energy to create electron-hole pairs silicon extremely widely used band gap 1.1 eV massive expertise and capability in electronics industry Resistors plastic – cheap diamond – robust, rad. hard Germanium – can be made thick 300 μm thick n-type silicon ~22,000 electron-hole pairs per MIP (most probable) in 300μm 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

28 Reminder: p-n Junctions
d Silicon doped to change electrical properties Charge carriers diffuse out of depletion region Net space charge  electric field Intrinsic depletion can be increased by reverse bias 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

29 Cerenkov Detector Cerenkov Radiation LHCb 21st April 2008
A charged particle will radiate energy if its velocity is greater than the local phase velocity of light speed of light in medium = c/n n = refractive index charged particles produce light “shock waves” if v>c/n light cone cosθ = c/vn = 1/(nβ) “eerie blue glow” Useful for separating pions and kaons LHCb 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

30 Transition Radiation Detector
GLAST launches May 16 GLAST An energetic charged particle moving through matter momentarily polarizes the material nearby. If the particle crosses a boundary where the index of refraction changes, the change in polarization gives rise to the emission of electromagnetic transition radiation. About one photon is emitted for every 100 boundaries crossed. Transition radiation is emitted even if the velocity of the particle is less than the light velocity of a given wavelength, in contrast to Cerenkov radiation. Consequently, this radiation can take place in the x-ray region of the spectrum where there is no Cerenkov radiation, because the index of refraction is less than one. At each interface between materials, the probability of transition radiation increases with the relativistic gamma factor. Thus particles with large γ give off many photons, and small γ give off few. For a given energy, this allows a discrimination between a lighter particle (which has a high γ and therefore radiates) and a heavier particle (which has a low γ and radiates much less). Useful for separating pions and electrons 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

31 More interactions and detectors
Next Time... More interactions and detectors 21st April 2008 Fergus Wilson, RAL

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