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{ From Nationalism to Sectionalism Chapter 3, section 1.

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1 { From Nationalism to Sectionalism Chapter 3, section 1

2 Nationalism and Domestic Policy  New sense of nationalism  Economy growing rapidly  “Era of Good Feelings”  McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)  Chief Justice John Marshall sided with national government on issue of national bank  Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)  Gave national government sole right to regulate interstate commerce (trade between states)

3 Nationalism and Foreign Policy  Adams-Onis Treaty  US acquired Florida and established boundary between Louisiana Purchase and Spanish territory  Allowed American settlers to travel to Oregon for 10 years  Monroe Doctrine  Declared the Americas off- limits to European colonization  Could view further colonization “as dangerous to our peace and safety”

4 Missouri Compromise  Missouri petitioned to become state  Would upset balance of slave states and free states (11 each)  Missouri Compromise allowed MO to come in as a slave state with Maine which was a free state  Banned slavery in northern part of Louisiana Territory  Sectionalism (belief in a region being more important than the whole) began to emerge

5 Age of Jackson  Jackson ran in a close election and lost to John Quincy Adams  Eventually decided in the House of Representatives  Jackson created the Democratic Party and won the next election because Adams was unpopular  Indian Removal Act  Called for relocation of five Indian nations to Indian Territory (west of Mississippi River)  Trail of Tears  National Bank  Created to regulate state banks  Jackson opposed because thought Constitution didn’t give Congress the authority to create it  State banks made it easier for poor people to get loans  Jackson ordered secretary of treasury to take money out of national bank and deposit into state banks that were conveniently loyal to him

6 States Rights  Controversy over powers of federal government vs. state government  10 th Amendment  Northern states and Southern states clashed over tariffs on foreign goods  Northern states liked the tariffs to make northern goods more competitive, but Southerners didn’t like paying more  “Nullification Crisis” when South Carolina rejected the new tariffs and threatened to secede if government tried to enforce  Jackson tried to use military force to collect, but Henry Clay worked out compromise to reduce tariffs for 10 years

7 The Industrial North  Mid-1700s to mid-1800s Industrial Revolution  Steam engines and machines for textiles created in Britain  Made it illegal to leave the country or export a machine  Samuel Slater brought machines to America  Urbanization in the North  Roads, canals, railroads all sprung up  Telegraph was patented by Samuel Morse  Sends messages using electricity through wires  Instant communication

8 Cotton and the South  Eli Whitney’s cotton gin made large-scale cotton production possible  Separated the seeds from the cotton  Textile industry in the North bought cotton to weave into cloth  Demand from Great Britain for cotton  Slavery grew  1810: 1 million slaves  1840: 2.5 million  1/3 of South’s population

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