2 What is Geography?Geography = the study of people, places and the environmentGeography comes from 2 Greek words“Geo” = Earth“graphy” = WritingGeography = writing about the Earth
3 Two Types of Geography Physical Geography Cultural Geography Location, LandformsCultural GeographyHuman Characteristics, Regions, Movement
4 5 Themes of Geography 1 - Location Geography helps you think of things spatiallyWhere things are located and how they got there.
5 2 Types of Location Absolute Location Relative Location EXACT place on Earth something can be found using latitude and longitudeMelbourne, Australia = 38S, 145ERelative LocationLocation of one place in relation to another place.Canada is north of the United StatesGiving directions to your houseWe use this one the most!!!
6 5 Themes of Geography 2 – Place Changes over time based on human and physical characteristics (features)Volcanoes erupt, glaciers move, forests burnPeople build new cities and expand old cities
7 2 Types of Place Physical Characteristics Climate (typical weather over long period)LandformsBodies of waterPlant/animal lifeHuman/Cultural CharacteristicsCities, towns, governments, cultural traditionsHuman created features
8 5 Themes of Geography 3 – Region Geographers group places into regions Region = a group of places that have physical features or human characteristics in commonGeographers compare regions to understand the differences and similarities among them.Geographer interested in language may group countries based on the language they speak.
9 2 Types of Regions Natural Regions 10 natural regions based on a unique combination of plant/animal life and climate
11 2 Types of Regions Cultural Regions An area in the world where many people share similar beliefs, history, and languagesThere may be multiculturalism in one region – but one overall cultural trait (USA)
13 5 Themes of Geography 4 – Movement The movement of people, goods, ideas as well as plants, animals and other physical features.
14 Migrate vs. EmigrateMigrate = move from one area to another usually within a countryEmigrate = to move from one country or region to another (leaving)Permanent intentionsPeople take with them their customs and ideasImmigrate = to come to a country of which you are not a native to live (coming)
16 Push – Pull Theory Push = problems in one place push people out Poverty, overcrowding, lack of jobs, schools, prejudice, warPull = better opportunities pull people to a new placeHigher standard of living, employment, rights, freedoms, safetyIrish potato famine (1.5 million in 1840’s-1850’s)Cubans flee for Florida
18 Barriers to MovementNatural barriers can prevent people from migratingDifficultMountain ranges, canyons, raging riversEasierOceans, lakes, navigable rivers, flat land
19 5 Themes of Geography 5 – Human-Environment Interaction The interaction between the people and their environmentHow people affect their environment & how the environment affects people.Can be positive and negativePlanting trees, irrigation = positiveClear-cutting trees = negativeOccurs because humans depend on, adapt to and modify the world around them.
20 Human AdaptationHumans have often adapted their way of life to their environmentWhat they wear, eat, do to make a livingModern technology has made a close adaptation to the environment not as necessary
21 InteractionPeople and the environment continually interact with each otherPublic transportationLess gas consumedLess air pollutionHealthier lives for people