20 Furrow irrigation. Note the water coverage of the entire furrow, and the broken earthen bund (foreground) that permits water to enter.
21 Release of water from gated pipe, for furrow irrigation of maize
22 Drainage from end of furrow Drainage from end of furrow. Note the wetting front along the dry soil of the furrow; low water flow from furrow into drain; and the use of mulch to minimise evaporative losses.
23 Example of microirrigation. Arrow indicates emittor. Note wetted soil only around plant.