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Effective Communication

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1 Effective Communication
Module 6 Session 3

2 Activity - Folding paper
We are going to start with a quick game. Four volunteers stand up in front of the class (if the whole class wishes to participate that is fine too). Each one gets a pieces of blank paper. Volunteers must eyes close their eyes and keep them closed. And they are not allowed to ask questions. Once all volunteers are ready and their eyes are closed skip to the next slide.

3 Instructions Ask volunteers to fold their paper in half and to tear off the bottom right hand corner. Tell them to fold the paper in half again and to tear off the upper right hand corner. Tell them to fold the paper again and tear off the lower left hand corner. This must all be done with closed eyes. The director should say the instructions slowly enough for them to follow but without responding to any questions they might ask.

4 Display and discuss Finally ask them to open their eyes and show their unfolded paper to each other and the audience. Discussion: What words in the instructions could have been interpreted in different ways? How could direction have been clearer?

5 Learning objectives Communicate effectively in one-to-one and one-to-many discussions Notice when communication is at risk of breaking down and help towards avoiding it Provide constructive feedback without being critical

6 Communication Communication is the transfer and receipt of information from one person to another (or from one point to another). It is always between at least two people –sender and receiver – and the roles will change frequently. But the message must be understood for communication to be considered complete.

7 The Communication Process
Feedback Source Encoding Channel Decoding Receiver Message Message Message Message Understanding occurs only in the mind of the receiver. They are responsible for completing the communication process.

8 Key Communication Elements
The Method: Verbal Non-verbal Written Electronic The Situation: Distance Speed Attitude Different cultures The Receiver: Could be known or unknown Sender must imagine being the receiver Nature of Content: Must be clear and understandable Unacceptable content should be avoided

9 Common hindrances to effective communication
Personal: Attitude of both the sender and the receiver Misuse of body language Pre-judgement The “I have heard it all before” syndrome Emotional Reactions Mental closure Mis-communication (intentional or unintentional) These the ones most easily overcome. Communicators can influence them.

10 Common hindrances to effective communication
Situational: Improper timing Noise and distractions in the environment Pressure of Time or other Resources Unfamiliar language Knowledge Level More difficult to control. Careful forward planning and thoughtful consideration can help.

11 Common hindrances to effective communication
Social: Differences between people Relationship between the sender and the receiver Necessary formalities can help.

12 Barriers that hinder effective communication
Filtering – sender manipulates information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver. Selective Perception –receiver selectively sees and hears based on his/her needs, motivations, experiences, background and other personal characteristics.

13 Barriers that hinder effective communication
Defensiveness – when individuals interpret another’s message as threatening, they often respond in ways that retard effective communication Language – even within a language words can mean different things to different people.

14 Effective communication
Need to look out for barriers and ways to overcome them. catch and put right early, if not can lead to one or more people feeling alienated and thus a failure to communicate. When using electronic methods of communication use careful, thoughtful planning.

15 Ten Considerations of Effective Communication
Seek to clarify your ideas before communicating Examine the true purpose of communication Consider the total physical and human setting Consult with others in planning communication Be mindful of the overtones as well as the basic content of your message

16 Ten Considerations of Effective Communication
Take the opportunity to convey something of help or value to the receiver Follow-up your communication Be sure your actions support your communication Seek not only to be understood but to understand – be a good listener

17 Activity (practical) Now refer to the Practical sheet and complete Activity 2. This is a short role play exercise. Participants should be in groups of 2 or 3.

18 Introduction to inclusive language
Language is important in shaping and portraying perceptions and attitudes, and is by no means neutral. Choosing certain words can exclude and devalue people. Choosing appropriate words allows us to treat each other with dignity, respect and sensitivity. ……so.

19 Gender-neutral language
Use gender-free terms in writing or talking about traditionally male or female activities. Let language usage reflect the fact that both men and women are involved in workplace, home, etc.. Example Degender, don’t Re-gender ( e.g., chairman to chair, not chairwomen). Avoid occupational designations having derogatory –ette and –ess endings

20 Disabilities Unless you’re writing is specifically focused on disabilities, avoid singling out one disabilities simply for the sake of identification. Avoid words that imply victimisation or create negative stereotypes (e.g., “victim” or “sufferer” for someone with a disease). Avoid words such as “poor,” “unfortunate” or “afflicted.”

21 Pronouns Avoid the pronoun he when both sexes are included. Alternative approaches are: Recast the plural. Reword to eliminate the pronoun. Replace the masculine pronoun with one, you, or (sparingly) he or she as appropriate. Use a plural indefinite pronoun ( e.g. “All those who are on the course should bring their notes with them tomorrow.”)

22 Pronouns - examples NO “Give each student his exam paper.”
“The average student is worried about his grades.” “If the student is unhappy with his grade, he can appeal it.” YES “Give students their exams papers.” “The average student is worried about grades.” “A student who is dissatisfied with his or her grade can appeal it.”

23 Activity (practical) Return to the Practical sheet and complete Activity 3. Rewrite the sentences incorporating what you have learned about inclusive language

24 Listening skills Holds as much importance and responsibility as speaking and should be pursued actively. Good listening: Promotes good understanding of other’s points Promotes good understanding of how your own points are being perceived Will help make you well understood in the group Will promote good relationships

25 Active listening (6 points)
Empathising and identifying with the speaker Help you to understand their points better, faster, as a whole; gives you better grasp on entire issue. allow you to put your own points in a way which is attainable and poignant to the listener. Be responsive Maintain a high level of eye contact. Use body language to show interest and openness. Show your understanding using paraphrasing and short utterances, be careful to encourage not interrupt.

26 Active listening (6 points)
Listening and understanding points being made Listen openly to the other person Make sure you understand the point and the point of view before you form an opinion Judge the content, not the messenger or delivery Ask the other person for as much detail as he/she can provide

27 Active listening (6 points)
Listening between the lines Pay attention to verbal and nonverbal cues about how the speaker feels about their points Understanding the speaker’s feelings will allow you to respond sensitively and avoid problems such as defensiveness. Pay attention Fight distractions, especially thinking ahead to what you are going to say back! Your retort may not be relevant.

28 Active listening (6 points)
Testing for understanding (Feedback) Do not make assumptions –ask questions to verify your understanding. Use multiple techniques to fully comprehend Ask open friendly questions such as “If I have understood correctly you are saying that…?” Ask them to repeat themselves if necessary Ask them to rephrase things if you feel you are misunderstanding

29 Speaking skills Don't totally control conversation
acknowledge what has been said and incorporate it into your discourse Ask the other for other’s views or suggestions State your position openly Be specific, not global, make your point as your own Be clear in what you are saying but not damning of other opinions  

30 Speaking skills Be validating, not invalidating ("You wouldn't understand") Acknowledge other’s uniqueness, importance. Don't react to emotional words, interpret their purpose Important not to allow personal feelings to derail the focus of the discussion. Respond in a way that acknowledges the emotion but eliminates it from the topic.

31 Constructive Feedback
Providing constructive feedback is a key part of training.Receiving it is key to the learning process. We now ideas on providing constructive feedback. give some When reading them think about two he principles of adult learning: Autonomous, participants make decisions for themselves; you are there to guide not tell them. Experience, particiapants’ past experience has provided them with a strong sense of self. They know more about themselves than you do.

32 Constructive Feedback
It must not be focused on the person Avoid accusations Focus on the behavior/message not the person. … and behavior which the receiver can do something about.. It must be presented as your opinion Leaves individual free to use it or not to use it It must not be evaluative - cause defensiveness. Be descriptive about the action, message and how you perceived it.

33 Constructive Feedback
It must always be solution orientated Never provide critical feedback for the sake of criticizing Must be for improvements sake Must include possible solutions and alternatives - which must in turn be open to criticism. It must include praise Points that impressed you as well as those that did not. By pointing these out you reinforce what you want from them by showing them which path to follow.

34 Constructive Feedback
It must be well focused and clear Be as specific and detailed as possible Be completely clear before you start Misunderstandings and generalisations during feedback can be damaging It must be benefit the receiver (not the giver) Given to help, not to hurt. Feedback is not to make us feel better or give a psychological advantage. Must be an amount of information that the receiver can use. Overload will reduce the possibility that receiver can use what he receives effectively.

35 Constructive Feedback
It must be appropriately timed Feedback presented at inappropriate time may do more harm than good. If time has past need to rethink whether you need to give the feedback. It is only to help the recipient and they may now have helped themselves. It must not be presumptuous It concerns what is said and done, or how, not why. …Think of feedback as sharing of information rather than giving advice.

36 Constructive Feedback
It is part of the communication process. it can not start until you fully understand the point you are providing feedback on. it is not finished until they understand what you are explaining to them. It does not finish with your inputs; your feedback must be open to further feedback. All the principles of communication covered earlier apply to feedback sessions too!.

37 Activity (practical) Return to the Practical sheet and complete Activity 4. This activity involves group work examining feedback forms and adapting them to be constructive.

38 Review of learning objectives
Are you now able to: Notice when communication is in risk of breaking down and help towards avoiding it. Be emphatic, encouraging listeners. Understand the importance of good communication in providing feedback. Understand the importance of feedback in training. Provide constructive, well focused feedback.

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