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Chapter 12 Section 1 The Renaissance

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1 Chapter 12 Section 1 The Renaissance

2 What was the Renaissance? What was the Renaissance, and where did it begin? Italy Italian Cities Urban Societies Major Trading Centers Secular Moved away from life in the church Focuses more on material objects and enjoying life

3 The Renaissance was a time of renewal Renaissance means rebirth and Europe was recovering from the Dark ages and the plague. People had lost their faith in the church and began to put more focus on human beings.

4 How did the Crusades contribute to the Renaissance? Increased demand for Middle Eastern products Stimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern markets Encouraged the use of credit and banking Church rule against usury and the banks’ practice of charging interest helped to secularize northern Italy. Letters of credit served to expand the supply of money and expedite trade. New accounting and bookkeeping practices (use of Arabic numerals) were introduced.

5 Why Italy?  Italy had 3 advantages that made it the birthplace of the Renaissance.  1. thriving cities  2. a wealthy merchant class  3. the classical heritage of Greece and Rome.

6 City-States  Overseas trade led to the growth of many large city-states in Northern Italy, making this part of the country predominately urban.  The bubonic plague caused labor shortages which pushed up wages. With few opportunities to expand business, merchants began to pursue art.

7 Merchants  A wealthy merchant class developed in each Italian city- state.  In Florence, a powerful banking family called the Medici came to power.

8 Major Italian Cities Italy failed to become united during the Ages. Many independent city-states emerged in northern and central Italy that played an important role in Italian politics and art Milan Venice Florence Geno a All of these cities: Had access to trade routes connecting Europe with Middle Eastern markets Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe Were initially independent city-states governed as republics

9 Major Italian Cities Milan Venice Florence Milan One of the richest cities, it controls trade through the Alps. Venice Sitting on the Adriatic, it attracts trade from all over the world. Florence Controlled by the De Medici Family, who became great patrons of the arts. Genoa Had Access to Trade Routes

10 What advantage did Venice gain by its location?

11 Cosimo de Medici Dictator of Florence, 1434-1464.

12 Lorenzo de Medici Followed his grandfather as ruler of Florence.

13 Heritage of Greece & Rome  1. Artists drew inspiration from the ruins of ancient Rome.  2. Scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts.  3. Greek manuscripts were also in Rome after being relocated from Constantinople.

14 Renaissance Values (cont’d)  Secularism: a focus on the worldly rather than the spiritual and concerned with the here and now.  Led to an emphasis on worldly pleasure, such as material luxuries, music and food.

15 Renaissance Values (cont’d)  The Renaissance Man:  All educated people were expected to master almost every area of study, such as dancing, music, art, poetry, horseback riding, wrestling, the classics, etc.

16 Renaissance Values (cont’d)  The Renaissance Woman:  Well-educated but non- political.  Expected to inspire rather than create art.

17 Political Ideas of the Renaissance Niccolò Machiavelli The Prince Machiavelli believed: “One can make this generalization about men: they are ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for profit” Machiavelli observed city-state rulers of his day and produced guidelines for the acquisition and maintenance of power by absolute rule. He felt that a ruler should be willing to do anything to maintain control without worrying about conscience.

18  Better for a ruler to be feared than to be loved  Ruler should be quick and decisive in decision making  Ruler keeps power by any means necessary  The end justifies the means  Be good when possible, and evil when necessary

19 What was Machiavelli Central Idea in the Prince?

20 Nobility  Dominated Italian Society  Only 2 to 3 percent of the population  Held political post as well as advisers to the King  Needed to be Warriors but also needed to be educated  Had to have specific standards of behavior Renaissance Society

21 Peasants and Townspeople  85 to 90 percent of the total population  Serfdom continued to decrease  More peasants would become legally free  Few rose to be merchants, shopkeepers, artisans, and guild masters  However poverty would still increase throughout Europe Renaissance Society

22 Family and Marriage  Strong family bonds  Marriages were arranged when children wer two or three years old  This usually was to strengthen family ties or for business relations  Marriages included “Dowry's”, a sum of money the wife's family gave the husband upon marriage.  The father or husband was the center of the family  The mother or wife was to supervise the house Renaissance Society

23 Middle AgesRenaissance Nobility Peasants Townspeople Using the chart below, contrast the social structure of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance

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