2 Values 1.What are the major value dimensions on which cultural groups vary?
3 1. define the value dimensions identified by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, Hofstede and Schwartz. By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 2. discuss Canada’s rankings on Hofstede’s value dimensions. 3. describe Schwartz’ Circular Value Structure.
4 What are the major value dimensions on which cultural groups vary? ● Schwartz and Bilsky (1987) generated the following definition of “values”: “Values (a) are concepts or beliefs, (b) pertain to desirable end states or behaviors, (c) transcend specific situations, (d) guide selection or evaluation of behavior and events, and (e) are ordered by relative importance.”
5 (a) Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961): Identified 5 value dimensions on which these cultural groups varied: ● A number of studies have examined the major value dimensions on which cultures vary. These include: Examined values among members of diverse cultural groups within the U.S. (e.g., Hispanics, Mormons, Navaho Indians, Texans).
6 Value DimensionAlternative Orientations “Time” orientationPast, present, or future “Man-nature” orientation Subjugation to, harmony with, or mastery over nature “Activity” orientationBeing, becoming, or doing “Nature of man” orientationGood, evil, or “mixed” “Relational” orientationCollateral, lineal, or individualistic Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Value Dimensions
7 Value Dimension African Americans European Americans Hispanic Americans “Time” orientationPresentFuturePast “Man-nature” orientation Harmony with nature Mastery over nature Harmony with nature “Activity” orientationDoing Becoming “Nature of man” orientation Mixed Good “Relational” orientation CollateralIndividualisticCollateral Value Orientations of U.S. Cultural Groups (Ho, 1987)
8 (b) Hofstede (1980, 2001): Identified 4 value dimensions on which these cultural groups varied: Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and individualism. Examined values among IBM employees in 40 countries (e.g., Canada, China, Columbia, Germany, Greece, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, New Zealand, Poland, Uruguay, U.S., West Africa).
9 Value Dimension Highest Scoring Countries Lowest Scoring Countries Power distance Philippines, Mexico, Venezuela Denmark, Israel, Austria Uncertainty avoidance Greece, Portugal, Belgium Sweden, Denmark, Singapore Masculinity Japan, Austria, Venezuela Netherlands, Norway, Sweden Individualism U.S., Australia, Great Britain Pakistan, Colombia, Venezuela Countries High and Low on Hofstede’s Value Dimensions
10 Value DimensionMaximum ScoreAverage ScoreCanada’s Score Power distance1045539 Uncertainty avoidance 1126448 Masculinity955052 Individualism914380 Canada’s Scores on Hofstede’s Value Dimensions
11 (c) Schwartz (1999): Examined values among individuals in 49 countries (e.g., Australia, Brazil, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Poland, Singapore, Thailand, Turkey, United States, Zimbabwe). Identified 3 value dimensions on which these cultural groups varied: Mastery vs. harmony, hierarchy vs. egalitarianism, and conservatism vs. autonomy.
12 Value DimensionHighest Scoring Countries Mastery vs. harmony China, Zimbabwe, Greece vs. Italy, Slovenia, Mexico Hierarchy vs. egalitarianism China, Thailand, Turkey vs. Portugal, Italy, Spain Conservatism vs. autonomy Israel, Malaysia, Bulgaria vs. Switzerland, France, Spain Countries High on Schwartz’s Value Dimensions
13 Schwartz argued that, within the circular structure, adjacent values (e.g., hierarchy and conservatism) are compatible with one another and can be simultaneously pursued by a cultural group. In contrast, opposing values (e.g., mastery and harmony) are incompatible with one another and cannot be simultaneously pursued by a cultural group. Schwartz (1994) depicted the values that comprise the 3 dimensions in a circular structure.
15 ● Of the various value dimensions on which cultures vary, the dimension that has been most studied is Hofstede’s dimension of individualism. This dimension is often referred to as individualism- collectivism or “IC.” ● In recent years, there has been a proliferation of research on the impact of IC on a variety of psychological constructs, including the self-concept.
16 Values 1.What are the major value dimensions on which cultural groups vary?