# ETHOS The speaker’s character. Audiences will trust a speaker whom they believe to have strong character over one they do not trust, regardless of the.

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ETHOS The speaker’s character. Audiences will trust a speaker whom they believe to have strong character over one they do not trust, regardless of the speaker’s relative qualifications

Why does Charles Barkley sell financial advice?

Why wouldn’t we trust Hitler about fascism?

LOGOS The speaker’s use of logic. If the speaker develops his or her argument using solid examples and develops a logical conclusion, audiences will follow his or her reasoning and accept the argument

Inductive reasoning  Drawing logical conclusions from specific facts  Example: These three cats like tuna fish, therefore all cats like tuna fish.  Logical fallacy: We had rain all week, therefore we shall have rain all year.

Deductive reasoning  Reasoning from the general to the specific  Example: All dogs are mortal. Fido is a dog. Therefore Fido is mortal.  Logical fallacy: Ten chefs can cook faster than one chef. One chef can make a chicken in an hour. Therefore, ten chefs can make a chicken in six minutes.

PATHOS  Appeal to emotion. If an audience has an emotional response to a speaker’s words, it will likely remain more engaged in the argument, and it will also be more likely to act in response to the speaker’s rhetoric.

Examples  Anecdotes are stories that support a speaker’s argument.  Example: Telling a story about Anabelle who was killed by a drunk driver before her prom supports the argument against drunk driving.

Statistics  Statistics can also appeal to emotions  Example: 158,000 people will be killed or injured by a drunk driver this year.

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