# Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System

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Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System

Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System
Florida Benchmarks SC.8.N.1.1 Define a problem from the eighth grade curriculum using appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 2

Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System
Florida Benchmarks SC.8.E.5.3 Distinguish the hierarchical relationships between planets and other astronomical bodies relative to solar system, galaxy, and universe, including distance, size, and composition. SC.8.E.5.7 Compare and contrast the properties of objects in the Solar System including the Sun, planets, and moons to those of Earth, such as gravitational force, distance from the Sun, speed, movement, temperature, and atmospheric conditions. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 3

Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System
Florida Benchmarks LA The student will organize information to show understanding (e.g., representing main ideas within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, or comparing/contrasting). Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 4

Bigger Is not better Where are small bodies in the solar system?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System Bigger Is not better Where are small bodies in the solar system? Scientists estimate that there are up to a trillion small bodies in the solar system. They lack atmospheres and have weak surface gravity. The largest of the small bodies, the dwarf planets, are found in regions known as the asteroid belt and Kuiper belt. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 5

Where are small bodies in the solar system?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System Where are small bodies in the solar system? The Kuiper belt is located beyond the orbit of Neptune. It contains Kuiper belt objects and comets. Comets are also located in the Oort cloud, which is a region that surrounds the solar system and extends almost halfway to the nearest star. Two other types of small bodies, asteroids and meteoroids, are located mostly between the orbits of Venus and Neptune. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 6

Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System
What are dwarf planets? A dwarf planet is a celestial body that orbits the sun and is round because of its own gravity. A dwarf planet does not have the mass to have cleared other bodies out of its orbit around the sun. Five dwarf planets have been identified: Ceres, Pluto, Eris, Haumea, and Makemake. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 7

KBOs What are Kuiper belt objects?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System KBOs What are Kuiper belt objects? The Kuiper belt is a region of the solar system that begins just beyond the orbit of Neptune. The Kuiper belt extends outward to about twice the orbit of Neptune, a distance of about 55 astronomical units (AU). Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 8

What are Kuiper Belt objects?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System What are Kuiper Belt objects? A Kuiper belt object (KBO) is any of the minor bodies in the Kuiper belt. They are made of methane ice, ammonia ice, and water ice. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 9

Pluto: From Planet to KBO
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System Pluto: From Planet to KBO Until 2006, Pluto was considered to be the ninth planet in the solar system. Beginning in 1992, Kuiper belt objects began to be discovered beyond Neptune’s orbit, some of which had similar size and composition as Pluto. In 2006, Pluto was redefined as a “dwarf planet” by the International Astronomical Union. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 10

Pluto: From Planet to KBO
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System Pluto: From Planet to KBO Many large KBOs have satellites. Pluto, the second-largest KBO, has Charon as its largest satellite. Some KBOs and their satellites, such as Pluto and Charon, orbit each other. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 11

What do we know about comets?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System What do we know about comets? A comet is a small body of ice, rock, and dust that follows a highly elliptical orbit around the sun. All comets have a nucleus that is composed of ice and rock. Most comet nuclei are between 1 km and 10 km in diameter. If a comet approaches the sun, solar radiation and heating cause the comet’s ice to change to gas. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 12

What do we know about comets?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System What do we know about comets? A coma is a spherical cloud of gas and dust that comes off the nucleus. The ion tail of a comet is gas that has been ionized by the sun. This ion tail always points away from the sun. A second tail made of dust and gas curves backward along the comet’s orbit. This dust tail can be millions kilometers long. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 13

What do we know about comets?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System What do we know about comets? The Oort cloud is a spherical region that surrounds the solar system. Comets can form in the Oort cloud when two objects collide, or when the gravity of a nearby star sends an object into the inner solar system. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 14

On the Rocks What do we know about asteroids?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System On the Rocks What do we know about asteroids? An asteroid is a small, irregularly shaped, rocky object that orbits the sun. Most asteroids are located in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. The asteroid belt contains hundreds of thousands of asteroids, called main-belt asteroids. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 15

What do we know about asteroids?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System What do we know about asteroids? The composition of asteroids varies. Hydrocarbons are materials that are found in asteroids. Some are rich in carbon. Others are rocky, with cores of iron and nickel. Some have a rocky core surrounded largely by ice. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 16

What do we know about asteroids?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System What do we know about asteroids? Some asteroids appear to be piles of rock loosely held together. Others contain economic minerals such as gold, iron, nickel, cobalt, and platinum. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 17

Burned Out What do we know about meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System Burned Out What do we know about meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites? A sand grain- to boulder-sized rocky body that travels through space is a meteoroid. A bright streak of light that results when a meteoroid burns up in Earth’s atmosphere is called a meteor. A meteorite is a meteoroid that reaches Earth’s surface without burning up. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 18

What do we know about meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites?
Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System What do we know about meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites? Meteoroids that burn up in the atmosphere that are close enough to see are often referred to as shooting stars. Meteoroids come from the asteroid belt, Mars, the moon, and comets. Most meteoroids that enter Earth’s atmosphere do not reach Earth’s surface. Many explode in the upper atmosphere; others skip back into space. Large meteoroids that enter Earth’s lower atmosphere or strike Earth’s surface can be destructive. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 19

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