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Appraisal Emotional Adjectives in English/Arabic Translation:

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1 Appraisal Emotional Adjectives in English/Arabic Translation:
A Corpus Linguistic Approach Salma Mansour Leeds University

2 Overview Dictionaries: a serious problem
Powerful/less adjectives in English and Arabic Corpus analysis Results

3 Dictionaries Vs. Corpora
Printed dictionaries limited by space information is always partial interpreted (sometimes wrongly) internally inconsistent and contradict each other out of date

4 “There are many facts about language that cannot be discovered by just thinking about it, or even reading and listening very intently” (Sinclair, 1995) “ As language teachers and professionals, we often have strong intuitions about language use…corpus-based research, however, shows us that our intuitions are often completely wrong” (Biber, 2005)

5 Emotions: In/security (the boy was anxious/confident)
Dis/satisfaction (the boy was fed up/ absorbed) Un/happiness (the boy was sad/happy) (Martin and White, 2005: 46-9; Bednarek 2008:15)

6 Powerful/less adjectives in English and Arabic
Strong qawi قوي Powerful jabar جبار Tough qas قاس Weak da‘if ضعيف Powerless wahin واهن Tender raqiq رقيق

7 قوي qawi tough powerful strong ضعيف da‘if tender powerless weak

8 Thing evaluated Hinge Evaluative category

9 Examples: weak AMMD 2007 EMD 2008 LASD 1994 COED 2010 WCD 2002
ضعيف العقل da‘if al‘aql (mentally weak) ضعيف – غير قوي (weak, not strong) Not strong in character Lacking physical strength and energy Lacking power or strength

10 BNC LLS I-EN physically weak 18.18 hand 13.80 heart 15.81 pulse 12.99
stomach 11.71 11.79 chest 8.97 muscle 11.70 8.90 leg 8.20 ankle 7.09 knee 7.39 chin 6.95 7.30 Leg 4.40 body 3.02 eye 1.12 The LL score of 'mentally weak' in BNC is (0.64) and in I-EN is (0.49). Similarly, the LLS of ‘weak mind’ in BNC is (1.58) and in I-EN is (4.37).

11 ضعيف /da‘if/ ‘weak’ I-AR LLS الشخصية al-shakhsyah ‘the personality’
150 القلب al-qalb ‘the heart’ 140 الساقين al-saqayn ‘the legs’ 75.35 البصرal-basar ‘the eyesight’ 22.44 العقلal-‘aql ‘the mind’ 1.89

12 Top 10 collocates of weak in BNC and I-EN
LLS I-EN syllable 87.51 spot 133.28 86.21 link 107.04 80.91 point 99.54 57.05 economy 58.50 interaction 56.71 signal 47.15 position 39.28 tie 40.82 overlap 36.62 acid 33.38 smile 34.19 argument 30.72 nuclear 30.81 immune 23.11 form 28.07 18.65 LLS of ‘weak syllable’ in I-EN is (1.87)

13 Examples: strong AMMD 2007 EMD 2008 LASD 1994 COED 2010 WCD 2002
قوي – شديد – ضخم قوي – شديد – متين Having a degree of power, esp. of the body Physically powerful Physically or mentally powerful

14 Strong COED LASD physical WCD mental AMMD EMD None!

15 LLS of mental, physical, behavioral collocates of strong
Appraised/Thing evaluated BNC I-EN Mind 3.10 0.47 Arm 93.66 55.75 Character 44.13 34.84 Personality 34.88 58.54

16 Collocation: a mode of expressing meaning
“You shall know a word by the company it keeps” (Firth, 1957: 12). “Looking at lexicographic work on Arabic collocation, a rather bleak picture emerges. There is an extremely limited amount of information on collocation in both monolingual (Arabic) and bilingual (Arabic-English/English-Arabic dictionaries. Besides, no monolingual (Arabic) or bilingual (Arabic-English/English-Arabic) collocational dictionary has been compiled as yet” (Bahumaid, 2006:137).

17 Dictionaries and semantic prosodies
“Lexicographers in the past have not been fully aware of the extent of semantic prosody […]modern corpora provide new opportunities of studying the phenomenon” (Partington, 1998: 68).

18 Semantic prosodies Positive Favorable (pleasant)
Neutral Neutral (No evidence) Negative Unfavorable (unpleasant)

19 Strong smell AMMD / I-AR BNC aroma drains gas coffee brandy negative
bad smell رائحة كريهة Positive aroma perfume Negative drains gas neutral coffee brandy

20 Node: powerful BNC LLS I-EN tool 143.09 814.27 influence 136.16 force
207.16 103.39 nation 186.20 man 90.58 weapon 136.33 83.64 86.53 argument 57.96 77.79 body 55.52 incentive 76.15 position 45.45 message 63.50 voice 44.83 computer 57.08 personality 24.13 way 54.29

21 Node: strong BNC LLS I-EN wind 433.66 feeling 372.52 352:24 support
355.22 sense 326.05 349.23 178.31 evidence 338.85 position 163.77 emphasis 305.34 151.91 266.76 129.73 leadership 258.30 link 125.36 commitment 241.05 opposition 122.81 supporter 230.46 argument 108.53 leader 215.36

22 Halliday (1976: 73): Strong (not powerful) tea Powerful (not strong) car

23 powerful vs. strong tool nation feeling weapon force wind sense
support wind sense

24 Powerless vs. weak Powerless collocates with: helpless passive
do nothing totally dependent hanging Weak collocates with: syllable spot link point economy smile

25 Collocation Joint Freq LL score
powerless to 176 187.92 powerless against 12 54759 18.16 powerless . 63 16.85 powerless group 6 53516 7.10 Powerless in 10 185185 0.20 powerless position 4 27442 5.24 powerless people 115476 4.92 powerless and 22 2.43 powerless ; 5 203952 powerless as 7 521522 1.77 powerless when 207566 1.55 powerless by 504964 0.37


27 tender & tough (a) tender
Thing evaluated English Arabic year inexperienced غير ناضج people, behavior gentle, nice لطيف - رقيق food easy to chew سهل المضغ part of the body sensitive حساس offer generous سخي feeling, emotions, love romantic رومانسي

28 (b) tough Thing evaluated English Arabic time hard أوقات عصيبة people
rough, stiff قاس – جلف - شكس decision, choice, question, competition difficult صعبة opponent stubborn, obstinate عنيد

29 Same but different!

30 جبار jabar ‘powerful’ vs. قوي qawi ‘strong’ vs. قاس qas ‘tough’
Positive jabar (great) juhd /effort/, ’mal /work/, mashru’ /project/ …God (2) Negative jabar (stubborn, unfair/unjust) malik /king/, hakim /judge, commander, leader/ (3) Neutral jabar (No indication)

31 (1) Positive qawi (strong) fariq /team/, jaysh /army/, ’iqtisad /economy/ e.g. ’iqtisad qawi /strong economy/ (not jabar/ not qas) (2) Negative qawi (destructive) zilzal /earthquake/ (3) Neutral qawi ta’thir /influence/, shakl /form/

32 Negative qas (difficult)
rajul /man/, waqi‘ /reality/, shay’ /something/ (2) Positive qas (No indication) (3) Neutral qas (No indication)

33 رقيق raqiq /tender/ Negative raqiq(weak)
ghisha’ /membrane/, jild /skin/ Positive raqiq (nice) uslub /style/, shakhs /person/, sawt /voice/, ihsas /feelings/, thawb /garment/ shakhs raqiq (nice person) shakhs da‘if/wahin (weak person) If the other two near synonyms /wahin/ and /da’if/can be roughly used as a synonym of negative /raqiq/, they can NEVER be used with the positive /raqiq/ because the meaning will be entirely different, if not contradicting!

34 Thank you for your attention

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