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SUMMARY WRITING You should be able to: 1.take Cornell Notes on the presentation 2.summarize what you have read about in 12-15 sentences.
I N CLASS, When I ask you to summarize, what usually happens? You write down everything. You talk. You write down next to nothing. You write down your feelings. You give me complete sentences. You write way too much. You write your own opinions. You don't write enough. You copy word for word. You paraphrase. You characterize.
To summarize, what do you do? You write down everything. You talk. You write down next to nothing. You write down your feelings. You give me complete sentences. You write way too much. You write your own opinions. You don't write enough. You copy word for word. You paraphrase. You characterize.
To summarize, what do you do? - - - - You give me complete sentences. -. - - - You paraphrase. -
I N CLASS, When I ask you to summarize, what are you expected to do? Pull out main ideas. Focus on key details. Use key words and phrases. Break down the larger ideas. Write only enough to convey the gist. Take succinct but complete notes.
D EFINITION A summary is a paraphrase of the important information found in a reading selection only. It is a shortened version of the original text.
A summary should : include the main idea, major supporting details or explanations, and the author ’ s conclusion. be approximately 1/4 the length of the original selection, be in your own words. A summary should not : x include your opinion. x be what you think the author should have said. x be copied (plagiarized) material or a series of quotes from the selection.
STEPS: First, read the selection several times to make sure you understand it.
Second, answer questions about the selection, such as: a. What is the topic? b. What is the author saying about the topic? This answer will give you the main idea of the selection. c. What are the important explanations, examples, or proof that support the main idea? d. What is the author ’ s conclusion?
Third, put the ideas in your own words.
HOW? The topic sentence should include the following information: 1. Title of the selection and genre 2. Author ’ s name, if this information is available 3. Main idea of the selection
SAMPLE TOPIC SENTENCES In the article, ” ____________, ” _________________________________ states that _____________________. (Title) (Author ’ s Name) (Main idea in your own words)
According to ______________ in his/her article, “ _____________, ” ________________________________. (Title) (Author ’ s Name) (Main idea in your own words)
This (paragraph, story, essay, news article or type of genre) titled “ ________________, ” written by _____________________ states that ____________________. (Title) (Author ’ s Name) (Main idea in your own words)
W ORDS FOR “S TATES ” addresses argues asserts claims concludes contends discusses emphasizes examines explores focuses on highlights the fact is about is concerned with mentions notes points out presents reports takes a look at
Then, compare your summary with the original selection. Have you included all the necessary information: Main idea Supporting details Conclusion Did you add your opinion? Remember! A summary is of the author ’ s ideas NOT yours. Erase your opinion.
R EMEMBER ! R A P S O
R A P S O R – Read the article. A – Ask yourself what is the main idea and important detail. P – Put it in your own words. S – Shorten it. O – Only what is in the text.
R EFERENCES http://www.readingquest.org/strat/summarize.html www.saddleback.edu/faculty/lbecktold/Summarypresentatio n.ppt
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