Presentation on theme: "Capitalization and Punctuation Chapter 13, pg 234."— Presentation transcript:
Capitalization and Punctuation Chapter 13, pg 234
Why? Writers use capital letters and punctuation marks to help the reader better understand what is written.
1 st word of every sentence All sentences begin with capital letters. W e enjoyed reading the book. T hose girls finished cleaning the counter.
Specific things/places (proper nouns) Proper nouns begin with capital letters. M rs. C lark asked if A my would help. We went to Texas with my U ncle R ob.
Capital Letters The pronoun I is always capitalized. I don’t need your help. My aunt and I picked up the papers.
Capital Letters A capital letter begins the first, last, and any important word in the title of a book, magazine, song, movie, poem, or other work. Read the last chapter of T om S awyer. She saw S now W hite when she was five years old. We watch “The Wizard of Oz.”
To capitalize or not to capitalize Do! Days of the week, months of the year, holidays Language, nationalities, races, religions, deities, sacred terms Titles: the first word and every important term First words of direct quotes Historical events, periods Brand names Don’t Seasons Common nouns that refer to religious places like “church” Titles: do not capitalize articles (the), prepositions (of, under, OVER), or short connecting words (or, and) unless they start the title Directions (north, south, east and west- unless used in a place name)
Practice, exercise 2 pg 238 1. Every tuesday, the general visits the hospital. 2. On one level, the book the lord of the rings can be read as a fairy tale: on another level, the book can be read as a christian allegory. 3. The golden gate bridge in san francisco may be the most beautiful bridge in the world. 4. She is the sister of my french teacher. Tuesday, the general visits the hospital. The Lord of the Rings Christian allegory. Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco may French teacher.
Practice, exercise 2 pg 238 continued 5. I’ve always wanted to take a trip to the far east in spring. 6. The kremlin, located in moscow, once housed the soviet government 7. I needed to see dr. Ghavami, but the nurse told me the doctor would not be in until next week. 8. He shouted angrily, “why don’t you ever arrive at your history class on time?” I’ve always wanted to take a trip to the Far East in spring. The Kremlin, located in Moscow, once housed the Soviet government. I needed to see Dr. Ghavami, but the nurse told “Why don’t you ever arrive
Punctuation: Comma (239) separate three or more items in a list or a phrase. He was silent, lonely, and afraid. Or He was silent, lonely and afraid.
Punctuation: Comma separates items in an address or date. Miami, Florida January 6, 2003
Punctuation: Comma Set off number of adjectives that modify a noun My favorite, old, green coat.
Punctuation: Comma To combine two simple sentences, use the comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) The house was on fire, but I was determined not to leave.
Punctuation: Comma Follow introductory words, expressions (prepositional or adverbial phrases) : In the beginning, I never thought I would. Surrounding word/phrase when the idea interrupts. Dave, who is a doctor, said to!
Punctuation: Comma In numbers of one thousand+ 1,001 Set off exact words in a dialog “I won’t,” he insisted, “do this!” When you need a short pause To John, Russel is the best! To John Russel is the best.
Exercise 4 pg 245 1. In Weaverville California the local high school administrators made an interesting discovery. 2. At a cost of four hundred dollars a year per student a private company was offering college-level advanced placement courses on the web. 3. Because some students need these courses to get into more competitive colleges everyone thought this would be a perfect way to take advantage of the new technology. 1.In Weaverville, California, the local high school administrators made an interesting discovery. 2. At a cost of four hundred dollars a year per student, a private company was offering college-level advanced placement courses on the web. 3. Because some students need these courses to get into more competitive colleges, everyone thought this would be a perfect way to take advantage of the new technology.
Exercise 4, pg 245 Continued 5. Brian Jones, a senior who wants to be a record producer, and Jeremy Forbes, a classmate who dreams of being a cartoonist,.. 6. … getting online, many technical glitches, and the absence.. 7. … last year, two-thirds did not complete… 8. … schools, but others… 180,000 9. …training SAT training, college counseling, and virtual field trips. 10...Santa Cruz, says, “Our
Punctuation: Apostrophe Possessive = Use apostrophe! The teacher’s pen (one teacher owns the pen) The Teachers’ pens (more than one teacher owns pens) Plural = Don’t Use! (except special circumstances) The cats wore pajamas. (more than 1 cat wore them) The cats’ pajamas were warm. (more than 1 cat owned pajamas)
Other uses of Apostrophe To form plurals (prevent confusion) he writes a’s and o’s When one+ letters omitted Can’t, shouldn’t, She’ll he writes as and os Cannot, Should not, She will
Punctuation: Quotation Marks Quotation marks are used to identify the exact words of a speaker. Mr. Bush said, “ We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail. ”
Punctuation: Quotation Marks Quotes or Material copied word-for-word from a source Titles of short stories, one- act plays, poems, articles, songs, essays, chapters of books When terms are referred to in a special way. It’s a “roach coach” diner. Dave “Wolfman” Hineman Yes, it was a “special” dinner for Hannibal Lecter. Not the real Name! Not his real Name! A special (sometimes ironic) meaning!
Punctuation: Semi-Colon To join 2 independent clauses They were lost. He decided to use the map; she decided to ask. In front of adverbial conjunction to join 2 sentences He decided to use a map; however, she decided to ask. In a series of items when the items themselves have commas! I had lunch with Linda, my best friend; Mrs. Armstrong, my English teacher; and Jan, my sister-in-law. With the semicolon, there are 3 women having lunch w/ me. Without, there are 6 women having lunch with me. I had lunch with Linda, my best friend, Mrs. Armstrong, my English teacher, and Jan, my sister- in-law.
Punctuation: Colon Before a list of items Please order: five dozen pencils, twenty rulers, five tacks. In the salutation of business letter To whom it may concern: Indicating time 1:15pm Between title and subtitle of a book In Plain English Please: A Rhetoric