1. Nationalism Nationalism is a strong feeling of pride & love for one’s country Expressed through competition & a desire for power (i.e. – German v. France) Countries sharing a similar nationality formed bonds – Pan Slavism: Russia and Serbia Certain nationalities resented domination by other countries & wanted independence (Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire)
2. Imperialism Imperialism is when one country takes over another country Imperialism goes hand in hand with Nationalism European countries compete for colonies leading to increased hostility & problems
3. Militarism Militarism is the glorification of war Militarism was adopted to defend nationalism & imperialistic colonies. Results: – An increase in tension & suspicion between countries – An Arms race – build up of weapons & naval power – A “survival of the fittest” mentality
187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
4. Alliance System Nations sign agreements to support one another if another is attacked. – Allies: (Triple Entente) – France, Great Britain, Russia (later the United States). – Central Powers: (Triple Alliance) – Germany, Austria – Hungary, Italy Provides some international security with no one wanting to upset the balance of power. Problem: a small war could turn into a major event!
Chain Reaction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vjqIJW_Qr3c How does the video illustrate the inherent or built in danger of the system of alliances?
5. Pre-determined War Plans Most European countries had pre-determined war plans if and when the Triple Entente and Triple Alliance ever went to war. Example: – Schlieffen Plan – Germany’s plan to attack France first and then go after Russia. – Plan 17 – France’s plan to concentrate most troops in one area to pierce through the heart of Germany
Immediate Cause of WWI: Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria – Hungary When: June, 1914 Where: Sarajevo, Bosnia Who: Assassinated by Serbian Terrorist group, the “Black Hand.” (Gavrilo Princip) Why: Upset over Austria-Hungary’s control over Serbian people in Bosnia. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hE8552joxfE