Austria-Hungary - declared war on Serbia Russia – bound by treaty to Serbia - declares war on Austria- Hungary.
Alliance Dominoes Germany – (ally of Austria Hungary) declares war on Russia and its ally France - wants Alsace-Lorraine from France Germany declares war on Belgium to attack France
Alliance Dominoes Britain – (ally of Belgium and France) declares war on Germany Ottoman Empire enters the war as a Central Power - Hopes to gain land in the Middle East
Allied Powers Great Britain France Russia Italy – remained neutral until 1915 before joining the Allies United States – remained neutral until 1917 before joining the Allies
Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) Bulgaria
Alliance Dominoes A local conflict has now ballooned into a global war….How? Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism
The Schlieffen Plan Named for designer Alfred von Schlieffen Offensive and Defensive Based on idea that Germany could not win on two fronts at same time.
Original German Military Strategy Quickly defeat France on the “Western Front” before Russia can mobilize – 6 weeks British forces would be stranded and unable to cross English channel – destroy them Then turn focus at Russia on the “Eastern Front”
The Schlieffen Plan in Action Germany invaded France through neutral Belgium (Aug 1914) =Re-supply and communication difficult for Germany Belgian Army defends against German troops - Gave French and British forces time to rush troops to battle
Germans able to push Allies back to Marne River (France) First Battle of Marne -Allies push advancing Germans back 40 miles - Germans dig deep trenches -French dig shallow trenches By the end of 1914 – War is a potential stalemate = Trench Warfare