Presentation on theme: "Fascism Rises in Europe"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fascism Rises in Europe Fascism—political movement that is extremely nationalistic, gives power to a dictator, and takes away individual rights
2 The economic crisis of the Great Depression led to the loss of democracy in some European countries. In these countries, millions of people turned to a strong ruler to try to solve some of their economic problems. These leaders followed a set of beliefs called fascism—which is very nationalistic. They believed in authority and built powerful militaries. The country’s governments were controlled by one party which was controlled by one leader—the nation’s dictator!
3 Rise of Fascism in Italy Bitter disappointment over not getting land in WWI Treaty of VersaillesRising inflation and high unemployment led to social unrestMany Italians felt the new democracy could not handle economic problemsMany Italians wanted a strong leader
4 Benito Mussolini Newspaper editor and politician Made bold promises to fix economy and rebuild armed forces (military)Promised to provide strong leadershipCreated Fascist Party in 1919Popularity rose as economy improvedStirred up fears of workers’ revoltWon support of middle class, aristocracy, industrial leadersFascist mob marches on Rome and puts Mussolini in power in 1922
5 Benito Mussolini Il Duce (the leader) Abolished democracy Outlawed all other political partiesCreated secret police (terrorized opposition)Censored news media (radio, newspapers, magazines) to spread fascist doctrineOutlawed worker strikesAllied fascists with industrial leadersNever achieved total control like Stalin in Russia
6 Review Questions Define fascism What factors led to the rise of fascism in Italy after World War I?
7 Hitler Rises to Power in Germany 1919 Hitler joined a right-wing political group that wanted Germany to overturn the Versailles TreatyGroup names itself—National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NAZI)Nazis form basis of fascism in Germany
8 Nazi Germany Adopt swastika as symbol Form militia (brown shirts) who act as storm troopersElect Hitler as FuhrerAttempt to seize power in Munich failed, Hitler imprisoned; Nazi’ weakHitler writes Mein Kamf where he outlines his beliefs and goals for GermanyAfter release, Hitler revives Nazi PartyHitler gains national attention when US loans stop during Great Depression
9 Mein Kampf Hitler’s Declaration Aryans (blond blue eyed Germans) to be the “Master Race”Non-aryans are inferior (Jews, Gypsies, SlavsVersailles Treaty is an outrageVows to regain lost landGermany needs more “lebensraun” or living room due to overcrowdingPromised to get more land by conquering Europe and Russia
10 Hitler Becomes Chancellor Nazis became largest political party in Germany by 1932Conservative leaders thought they could control HitlerHitler named Chancellor in 1933Hitler called for elections, parliament building burns downNazis blamed communists and win electionsHitler turned Germany into a totalitarian state
11 Hitler takes control of Germany After election, Nazis take control of economyStrikes bannedLabor unions dissolvedGov’t controls biz, laborHitler puts nation to work building factories, roads, weapons, serving in armyUnemployment drops sharply
12 The Fuhrer is Supreme Hitler wanted total control of every aspect of people’s livesTurns media into propaganda machinesNon-conforming books are burnedChurches forbidden to criticize the gov’tHitler Youth GroupsEmphasized continuous struggle for victoryAnti-Semitism gains gov’t support and violence against Jews erupts (Kristallnaght) signifying process to completely eliminate the Jewish people
13 Review Questions Define Nazism Why is Mein Kampf important? How did Hitler maintain power once he became chancellor of Germany in 1933?
14 Other Countries Fall to Dictators Nations formed after WWI also turn to dictators to solve economic problemsHungaryPolandYugoslaviaAlbaniaBulgariaRomania
15 Democratic Nations in Europe Only nations with strong traditions of democracy able to hold onto democracyBritainFranceScandinaviaBy mid 1930s, two opposing groups dominate Europe—democratic and totalitarian states. Totalitarian states are willing to use violence and military aggression to achieve their goals—including eliminating civil rights.
16 Review QuestionsWhy did leadership of many eastern European countries fall to dictators ?Why did the movements of fascism and Nazism and leaders like Mussolini and Hitler come to power during the crisis in Europe?What emotions did Mussolini and Hitler stir up in their followers?Why did Hitler make children join Nazi youth groups?What is lebensraum?
17 Complete the following Chart Totalitarian Regimes CountryRussiaItalyGermanyLeaderRuling PartyMethods of ControlSegment of Society under controlScapegoats
18 Totalitarian Regimes Country Russia Italy Germany Leader Stalin MussoliniHitlerRuling PartyCommunist PartyFascist PartyNAZI PartyMethods of ControlSecret police, police terror, spy, propaganda, indoctrination,Censorship Outlawed other political parties, strikes and unionsSecret police,Censorship, propaganda,Outlawed other political parties, strikes and unionsBrown shirts, censorship, Youth groups, indoctrination. Outlawed other political parties, strikes and unionsSegment of Society under controlTotal private and public control by gov’tNot total controlTotal controlScapegoatsRussian Orthodox Church, JewsVersailles Treaty,workersnon-aryans, jews, slavs, gypsies, Treaty of Versailles