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Fascism Rises in Europe

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1 Fascism Rises in Europe
Fascism—political movement that is extremely nationalistic, gives power to a dictator, and takes away individual rights

2 The economic crisis of the Great Depression led to the loss of democracy in some European countries. In these countries, millions of people turned to a strong ruler to try to solve some of their economic problems. These leaders followed a set of beliefs called fascism—which is very nationalistic. They believed in authority and built powerful militaries. The country’s governments were controlled by one party which was controlled by one leader—the nation’s dictator!

3 Rise of Fascism in Italy
Bitter disappointment over not getting land in WWI Treaty of Versailles Rising inflation and high unemployment led to social unrest Many Italians felt the new democracy could not handle economic problems Many Italians wanted a strong leader

4 Benito Mussolini Newspaper editor and politician
Made bold promises to fix economy and rebuild armed forces (military) Promised to provide strong leadership Created Fascist Party in 1919 Popularity rose as economy improved Stirred up fears of workers’ revolt Won support of middle class, aristocracy, industrial leaders Fascist mob marches on Rome and puts Mussolini in power in 1922

5 Benito Mussolini Il Duce (the leader) Abolished democracy
Outlawed all other political parties Created secret police (terrorized opposition) Censored news media (radio, newspapers, magazines) to spread fascist doctrine Outlawed worker strikes Allied fascists with industrial leaders Never achieved total control like Stalin in Russia

6 Review Questions Define fascism
What factors led to the rise of fascism in Italy after World War I?

7 Hitler Rises to Power in Germany
1919 Hitler joined a right-wing political group that wanted Germany to overturn the Versailles Treaty Group names itself—National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NAZI) Nazis form basis of fascism in Germany

8 Nazi Germany Adopt swastika as symbol
Form militia (brown shirts) who act as storm troopers Elect Hitler as Fuhrer Attempt to seize power in Munich failed, Hitler imprisoned; Nazi’ weak Hitler writes Mein Kamf where he outlines his beliefs and goals for Germany After release, Hitler revives Nazi Party Hitler gains national attention when US loans stop during Great Depression

9 Mein Kampf Hitler’s Declaration
Aryans (blond blue eyed Germans) to be the “Master Race” Non-aryans are inferior (Jews, Gypsies, Slavs Versailles Treaty is an outrage Vows to regain lost land Germany needs more “lebensraun” or living room due to overcrowding Promised to get more land by conquering Europe and Russia

10 Hitler Becomes Chancellor
Nazis became largest political party in Germany by 1932 Conservative leaders thought they could control Hitler Hitler named Chancellor in 1933 Hitler called for elections, parliament building burns down Nazis blamed communists and win elections Hitler turned Germany into a totalitarian state

11 Hitler takes control of Germany
After election, Nazis take control of economy Strikes banned Labor unions dissolved Gov’t controls biz, labor Hitler puts nation to work building factories, roads, weapons, serving in army Unemployment drops sharply

12 The Fuhrer is Supreme Hitler
wanted total control of every aspect of people’s lives Turns media into propaganda machines Non-conforming books are burned Churches forbidden to criticize the gov’t Hitler Youth Groups Emphasized continuous struggle for victory Anti-Semitism gains gov’t support and violence against Jews erupts (Kristallnaght) signifying process to completely eliminate the Jewish people

13 Review Questions Define Nazism Why is Mein Kampf important?
How did Hitler maintain power once he became chancellor of Germany in 1933?

14 Other Countries Fall to Dictators
Nations formed after WWI also turn to dictators to solve economic problems Hungary Poland Yugoslavia Albania Bulgaria Romania

15 Democratic Nations in Europe
Only nations with strong traditions of democracy able to hold onto democracy Britain France Scandinavia By mid 1930s, two opposing groups dominate Europe—democratic and totalitarian states. Totalitarian states are willing to use violence and military aggression to achieve their goals—including eliminating civil rights.

16 Review Questions Why did leadership of many eastern European countries fall to dictators ? Why did the movements of fascism and Nazism and leaders like Mussolini and Hitler come to power during the crisis in Europe? What emotions did Mussolini and Hitler stir up in their followers? Why did Hitler make children join Nazi youth groups? What is lebensraum?

17 Complete the following Chart Totalitarian Regimes
Country Russia Italy Germany Leader Ruling Party Methods of Control Segment of Society under control Scapegoats

18 Totalitarian Regimes Country Russia Italy Germany Leader Stalin
Mussolini Hitler Ruling Party Communist Party Fascist Party NAZI Party Methods of Control Secret police, police terror, spy, propaganda, indoctrination, Censorship Outlawed other political parties, strikes and unions Secret police, Censorship, propaganda, Outlawed other political parties, strikes and unions Brown shirts, censorship, Youth groups, indoctrination. Outlawed other political parties, strikes and unions Segment of Society under control Total private and public control by gov’t Not total control Total control Scapegoats Russian Orthodox Church, Jews Versailles Treaty, workers non-aryans, jews, slavs, gypsies, Treaty of Versailles

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