Presentation on theme: "Learning and Memory How do experiences produce relatively permanent changes in behavior? What are the principles behind the two types of associative learning,"— Presentation transcript:
Learning and Memory How do experiences produce relatively permanent changes in behavior? What are the principles behind the two types of associative learning, classical and operant conditioning? How are memories encoded, stored, and retrieved? What role does memory play in shaping our lives?
Retention at three levels of processing. In accordance with levels-of- processing theory, Craik and Tulving (1975) found that structural, phonemic, and semantic encoding led to progressively better retention.
Storage The process by which information is maintained over a period of time: –Sensory memory –Short-Term memory –Long-Term memory Primacy – Recency Effect – the ability to remember items at the beginning and ending of a list
Retrieval The process of obtaining information that has been stored in memory Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomena Recognition – identifying something that may or may not have been experienced before Recall – memory retrieval in which a person reconstructs previously learned material
Recognition versus recall in the measurement of retention. Luh (1922) had subjects memorize lists of nonsense syllables and then measured their retention with either a recognition test or a recall test at various intervals up to two days. As you can see, the forgetting curve for the recall test was quite steep, whereas the recognition test yielded much higher estimates of subjects’ retention.
Implicit Memories Procedural Learned skills Does not require conscious recollection Conditioned responses “automatic memory”
Explicit Memories Declarative Can be accessed directly Involves episodic and semantic memory Semantic General knowledge not attached to time Language Episodic Chronological recollection of experience “Flashbulb memory”
Memory for the past and future events Retrospective Remembering events from the past or previously learned Prospective Memory for future events “What do I have to do today?”