4 French and English Collide The “French and Indian War”, the colonial part of the “Seven Years War” that ravaged Europe from 1756 to 1763, was the bloodiest American war in the 1700’s. It took more lives than the American Revolution, involved people on three continents, including the Caribbean.
5 Cause of WarEngland and France were at war.Some French people began moving to the American colonies from Canada.England did not want to lose the colonies to the French, so the English asked the colonists to help them fight against the French. The French asked some American Indians to help them fight against England and the colonists.
6 1754 The First Clash British French The Ohio Valley Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne (Pitt) * George Washington * Delaware & Shawnee Indians
7 What is now considered the “French and Indian War” (though at the time the war was undeclared), began in 1753, when a young Virginian, Major George Washington, headed out into the Ohio region to deliver a message to a French Captain demanding that French troops leave the territory. The demand was rejected by the French.
8 War is formally declared in May 1756. The French and their Native American allies won many important victories. The British troops and colonial militia tended to fight in the open and in straight lines, as was common in Europe. The French and Native Americans used the element of surprise and hid behind rocks and trees.
9 1754 Albany Plan of UnionBen Franklin main delegate 1st proposal to unify coloniesrepresentatives from New England, NY, MD, PA
10 Two Goals:1. strengthen ties with the Iroquois League2. unify war effort in northern colonies
11 The colonists rejected Franklin’s plan, but it later provided a model for the United States government.Result of Albany Plan Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French.
12 British-American Colonial Tensions ColonialsBritishMethods of Fighting:March in formation or bayonet charge.Indian-style guerilla tactics.Military Organization:Col. militias served under own captains.Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials.Military Discipline:No mil. deference or protocols observed.Drills & tough discipline.Resistance to rising taxes.Colonists should pay for their own defense.Finances:Demeanor:Casual, non-professionals.Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.
13 1757 William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister Believed that the entire British Empire was at stake. Pitt persuaded Parliament to raise taxes and borrow money to fight the war. In 1758, better-prepared and better-led British troops began to overwhelm the French and Native American forces.
14 1758-1761 The Tide Turns for England * By 1761, Sp. has become an ally of Fr.
15 Battle of QuebecIn spring of 1759, the British began a campaign to invade New France and capture Quebec. British General Wolfe laid siege to the city. Trapped and without access to supplies, the enemy is starved into surrender. The British successfully won Quebec, and then Montreal, giving them control over all of New France.
16 1763 Treaty of ParisFrance --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River.Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England.England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.
18 Effects of the War on Colonies? 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time.2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated.3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify. This war was very costly to England. The British decided to tax the Colonists to pay for the war!
19 Effects of the War on Britain? 1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas.2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt.3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings.Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary!