Presentation on theme: "French and Indian War ► Guerrilla Warfare: form of warfare based largely on “hit and run” tactics ► Ohio River Valley: Region west of colonies that provided."— Presentation transcript:
French and Indian War ► Guerrilla Warfare: form of warfare based largely on “hit and run” tactics ► Ohio River Valley: Region west of colonies that provided trade link to Mississippi and many resources ► French controlled much of Canada, called colony “New France” ► Britain and France were traditional enemies ► Both countries claimed Ohio River Valley
French and Indian War ► Iroquois: powerful native tribe; allied with British ► Algonquin and Huron: Native tribes who allied with French ► NATIVE RELATIONS: BRITAIN V. FRANCE ► French: Did not destroy native hunting grounds Often married native women and adopted native ways of life Often paid for or rented land from natives Generally respected native way of life more than British did
French and Indian War ► NATIVE RELATIONS: BRITAIN V. FRANCE ► British: Took land if they wanted it Had little respect for native way of life Cleared hunting land for farms and settlements
French and Indian War ► Conflict between France and England begins in 1754 – called French and Indian war because it involved fighting natives and French ► British sent 22 year old George Washington to Ohio River Valley to kick French out.
French and Indian War ► Washington took 150 men to boot the French out and build a fort ► Found that French had built Ft. Duquesne at location where he planned to build fort ► GW heard that French were going to attack and quickly built fortifications called “Ft. Necessity”
French and Indian War ► French and Indians had 700 troops who used guerrilla tactics to defeat GW ► GW surrendered; French released him and sent him back to Virginia
French and Indian War ► Albany Plan of Union: plan to unite colonies under one central government ► Delegate: representative or spokesperson ► Delegates from 7 colonies met in Albany, NY to make alliance with Iroquois and to try to unite colonies under one government ► Alliance with Iroquois was approved, but colonies did NOT agree to central government
French and Indian War ► 1755, British send General Braddock to attack French Braddock was experienced in British army and very stubborn Had little or no experience fighting in wilderness and against guerrilla tactics
French and Indian War ► GW tried to warn Braddock about guerrilla tactics; Braddock ignored him ► French and Indians launched surprise attack: Braddock killed; his troops defeated.
French and Indian War ► French and Indians fight hard and drive back British; Spain supports France ► British suffer defeat over and over for two years ► 1757 William Pitt takes control of British government; orders army to make victory against French highest priority. ► 1758 Brits take Ft. Duquesne and rename it Ft. Pitt – now on site of modern Pittsburgh, PA
French and Indian War ► 1759 British invade New France ► Brits take capital city of Quebec; French surrender ► Peace treaty signed in Paris, France, 1763 – Seven years later (War often called Seven Years War)
French and Indian War ► Treaty: An official agreement between two countries – can be for trade, peace, or military ► Terms of Treaty of Paris: ► British get: Canada, all French land east of Mississippi except New Orleans, Florida ► Spanish get: All French land west of Mississippi and New Orleans ► France keeps: Sugar islands in West Indies, and two island in Gulf of St. Lawrence
French and Indian War ► Result: England gains new lands but runs up HUGE war debt. ► War was supposed to be short, but lasted 7 years.