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The Jackson Era 1824-1845 Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "The Jackson Era 1824-1845 Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Jackson Era Chapter 11

2 Jacksonian Democracy the United States had only one political party—Jeffersonian Republicans. Differences arose among various groups In 1824, James Monroe declined to run for a third term. Four candidates from the Republican Party competed for the presidency—all very different and from different states

3 The Election of 1824 Key Players
William H. Crawford—congressman from Georgia; was in poor health

4 The Election of 1824 Key Players
General Andrew Jackson a favorite son candidate (received backing from his home state rather than the national party); from Tennessee—NOT a Washington Politician hero of War of 1812, Raised in poverty claimed to speak for “Americans who had been left out of Politics”

5 The Election of 1824 Key Players
Henry Clay From Kentucky A favorite son candidate Was for internal improvements, high tariffs, and a stronger national bank

6 The Election of 1824 Key Players
John Quincy Adams From Massachusetts Son of former president John Adams Received support from merchants of the Northeast

7 Election of 1824 The Results
Jackson received most popular votes and received 99 electoral votes which gave him plurality (largest single share) No candidate received the majority (more than half) of the electoral votes The constititution stated that when no candidate receives the majority, the House of Representatives elects the president

8 Election of 1824 The Results
Clay met with Adams and agreed to use his influence as Speaker of the House to defeat Jackson. In return, Clay would become the secretary of state (seen as a stepping stone to the presidency) Jackson’s followers accused them of a “corrupt bargain” and stealing the election

9 The Adams Presidency The “corrupt bargain” tainted Adam’s presidency
Adams wanted: stronger navy government funds for scientific expeditions, and federal government to direct economy This horrified the people who supported limited federal government Congress turned down many of Adams proposals

10 The Election of 1828 Key Players: Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams
One of the most vicious campaigns in American history Two parties: Democratic-Republicans (supported Jackson); National Republicans (supported Adams)

11 The Election of 1828 Jackson’s Democratic Republicans favored states’ rights and mistrusted a strong central government Adams’ National Republican’s wanted a strong central government, supported federal endeavors like road building and a national bank

12 The Election of 1828 During the campaign both parties resorted to mudslinging (attempts to ruin the opponent’s reputation with insults) Adams– accused of betraying the people Jackson—vicious campaign to bring up embarrassing incidents such as his order to execute several soldiers who were deserters in the War of 1812 Other “new” election elements were slogans, rallies, buttons and other events to raise enthusiasm

13 Jackson Triumphs Jackson won the election in a landslide (overwhelming victory) with 56% of the popular vote and 178 electoral votes

14 Jackson’s Presidency Jackson promised “equal protection and equal benefits” for all Americans –at least all white American men. In early years there was limited suffrage (right to vote) given to men who owned property or paid taxes During Jackson’s presidency, white male sharecroppers, factory workers, and many others were brought into the process By 1840, more than 80% of white males voted in the elections Women, African Americans and Native Americans still could not vote (and had very little rights at all)

15 The Spoils System “To the victors belong the spoils.”
In other words, because the Jacksonians had won the election, the had the right to the spoils—benefits of victory—such as handing out jobs to supporters The practice of replacing government employees with the winning candidates supporters became known as the spoils system

16 The Tariff Debate Americans disagreed strongly on the issue of tariffs (fee paid by merchants who imported goods) 1828 Congress passed a very high tariff on goods from Europe Citizens in the NE welcomed the tariff because it encouraged American manufacturing Southerners hated the tariff—They called it the Tariff of Abominations. It forced consumers to buy American, but it also meant higher prices.

17 The South Protests Vice President John C. Calhoun supported the southerners. He argued that states had the right to nullify (cancel) a federal law that it considered against state interests Some Southerners wanted to secede (break away) and form their own government Drawing on ideas from Madison and Jefferson, Calhoun argued that since the federal government was a creation of states then the states had final authority

18 The Webster-Hayne Debate
Robert Hayne—young senator from South Carolina—defended the idea that states had a right to nullify acts of the federal government, and even secede Senator Daniel Webster strongly disagreed. He argued that nullification could only mean the end of the Union. Webster closed with this statement, “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!”

19 The Nullification Crisis
Jackson’s stance: “Our federal union….must be preserved!” State supporters were shocked and disappointed Calhoun responded: “The Union—next to our liberty, most dear.”—meaning that the fate of the Union must take second place to state’s liberty to overrule the Constitution. Calhoun realized that Jackson would not change his views, not long after, he resigned the vice presidency

20 The Nullification Act South Carolina (Calhoun’s home state) declared that it would not pay the “illegal” tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina legislatures threatened to secede from the Union if the federal government tried to interfere with their actions.

21 Force Bill To ease the crisis, Jackson supported a compromise proposed by Henry Clay to lower the tariff over several years. Early in 1833, Jackson persuaded congress to pass the Force Bill—this bill allowed the president to use the United States military to enforce acts of Congress. In response, South Carolina accepted the new tariff, but they still voted to nullify the Force Act South Carolina and the rest of the South would remember that the federal government would not allow a state to go its own way without a fight!

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