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The Brain. Divisions Cerebrum Diencephalon Brainstem Cerebellum.

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Presentation on theme: "The Brain. Divisions Cerebrum Diencephalon Brainstem Cerebellum."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Brain

2 Divisions Cerebrum Diencephalon Brainstem Cerebellum

3 Cerebrum Cerebrum Largest area On top 4 lobes (frontal, parietel, temporal, occipital) Thinking, short and long term memory, voluntary movement, reasoning, level of consciousness

4 Cerebrum (cont) Structure Ridges (convolutions/gyri) Grooves (sulci) Deep grooves (fissures) 2 hemispheres (R and L) Corpus callosum (connect two halves) Cerebral cortex: thin layer of gray matter (mostly dendrites an cell bodies) gray matter White matter: inner cerebrum Some inner gray:basal ganglia (automatic postures)

5 4 lobes Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital

6 Frontal Lobe Prefrontal; conscious thought Broca’s area; motor speech Premotor area; muscle coordination Primary motor area; precise muscle control Central sulcus

7 Parietal Lobe Primary somatic sensory area; body sense perception Primary taste area Somatic sensory association area; body sense perception Wernicke’s area; sensory speech area

8 Temporal Lobe Auditory association area Primary auditory area

9 Occipital Lobe Visual association area Visual cortex

10 Diencephalon Thalamus: relay station for senses Hypothalamus:body temp., water balance, sleep cycle, appetite (mind-body connection) Pituitary gland: master gland (8 hormones)

11 Brainstem Midbrain: relay for visual and auditory impulses Pons: relay station; influences respirations Medulla oblongata: life centers (cardiac and respiratory)

12 Cerebellum Balance and coordination

13 Spinal Cord Occipital bone to bottom of first lumbar vertebrae (17-18 inches) H-shaped Core made of gray matter (cell bodies and dendrites) Outer portion: white matter; bundles of myelinated axons: spinal tracts

14 Spinal Tracts Ascending tracts: conduct impulses to the brain Descending tracts: conduct impulses from the brain Tracts are organized to carry different sensations

15 CNS Protective Coverings Skull Vertebrae Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Meninges: dura mater: outer arachnoid mater: middle pia mater: inner

16 Cd Flow of CSF Filtered out from blood capillaries known as choroid plexus Two large spaces: lateral ventricles (R and L) Flows down through aqueduct to third ventricle Then to a fourth ventricle down to subarachnoid space near cerebellum Then to spinal cord Purpose: protection

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