# How do you calculate the density of a substance?

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How do you calculate the density of a substance?
Density Calculations How do you calculate the density of a substance?

Covered in This Lesson This lesson will demonstrate how to calculate density to the correct number of significant figures(sig figs) using experimental measurements. When calculating density we measure the mass and the volume of the sample. The volume can be measured using one of several methods.

Density Formual V When calculating density you measure the
mass of the sample using a balance volume of the sample from one of the methods apply the formula: mass/volume = density or m = d V

Methods: Volume There are three methods to measure the volume of a substance. The method used is determined by the type of substance. Methods for the; volume of liquid volume of regular solid volume of irregular solid.

Volume of a Liquid If the substance is a liquid, measure it directly in a graduated cylinder.

Examples 1 If a liquid sample has a mass of 4.83 g and a volume of 2.7 mL what is its density. 4.83 g = 2.7 mL Because 2.7 has 2 sig figs the final answer is 1.8 g/mL

Volume of a Regular Solid
If you have a regular solid like a cylinder, cube, or rectangular solid measure the dimensions needed and apply the volume formula.

Examples 2 If cubic solid sample has a mass of g and the side is 2.55 cm, what is its density. V = s3 = (2.55 cm) 3 = cm3 D = g = cm3 Because 2.55 has 3 sig figs the final answer is 2.44 g/cm3

Volume of a Irregular Solid
If you have an irregular solid use displacement, take initial volume of water in a graduated flask, submerging the sample in the flask, and take the final volume while the solid is submerged. Subtract final volume minus initial volume.

Examples 3 Find the density of a solid sample with a mass of g and displacement is used to find the volume, the initial volume is mL, the final volume is mL. V = mL – mL = 53.18mL 75.45 g = g/mL 53.18mL Since both mass and volume have 4 sig figs the final answer is g/mL

Practice Problems Find the density of a liquid with a volume of 3.8 mL and a mass of 3.75 g. Find the density of a rectangular solid with a length of 4.5 cm, a width of 2.5 cm, a height of 1.5 cm and a mass of g. Find the density of an irregular solid with a mass of 1.2 g, an initial volume of 25.7 mL and final volume of 18.4 mL when displacement is used.