2 Main Idea:What issues arose in the aftermath of WWII and how did new tensions develop?
3 The War’s Aftermath…Which country suffered the most casualties? _________________How many casualties were there in that country? _________________How many military casualties did the U.S. have? _________________How many civilian casualties did the U.S. have?
7 Horrors of the Holocaust: The Nuremberg Trials “Crimes against humanity”200 Austrians and Germans tried (later, Japan)Most found guilty: death or prisonFirst time political/military leaders could be held accountable
9 Why had ordinary people in Germany, Poland, France, and elsewhere accepted—and even collaborated in– Hitler’s “Final Solution”?
10 Our new mission: Strengthen democracy to ensure tolerance and peace. Allies helped build new democracies in Germany and Japan.
11 Establishing the U.N.April 1945: delegates from 50 nations convened in San FranciscoGeneral Assembly: each nation has one voteSecurity Council: U.S., Russia, Britain, France, China (each has the right to veto any decision)
12 What powers do they have? Economic sanctionsSend peace-keeping military forcePrevent outbreak of diseaseImprove educationProtect refugeesWHO, FAO, etc.
13 Alliance Breaks Apart… During WWII, USSR and US cooperated to defeat Nazi GermanyAfter the war, conflicting ideologies and mutual distrust led to Cold War
14 The Cold War:A state of tension and hostility between nations aligned with US on one side and the USSR on the other, without armed conflict between the major rivals
15 Stalin’s Goals in Eastern Europe: Spread communismCreate buffer zone of friendly governments as protection against GermanyBy 1948, pro-Soviet communist gov’ts were in place throughout Eastern Europe
16 The Truman Doctrine Britain could no longer aid Greece and Turkey Truman said U.S. must step inCongress approved $400 millionSet precedent for U.S. involvement in world affairs (to keep democracy safe)