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Indus River Valley Chapter 3

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Presentation on theme: "Indus River Valley Chapter 3"— Presentation transcript:

1 Indus River Valley Chapter 3
2500 B.C – 250 B.C. -Geography and climate played important roles in the development of civilization. -Scholars have named this region the Harappan civilization because most of what we know about this civilization come from the ruins of Harappa & Mohenjo Daro. -The Harappan Culture Stretches across present day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Bhutan Indus River Valley Chapter 3

2 Geography/Barriers Arabian Sea Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal
Himalayan Mnts Hindu Kush Mnts -Natural borders consisted of mountains and the Arabian Sea, sheltering the civilization from attack and disease. Water from the river fertilized and irrigated crops. Proximity to the river allowed boats to become a viable transportation option -Indian subcontinent extends southward from central Asia into the Indian Ocean. -Mountain ranges separate India from Asia in the North. -Himalayan Mountains are the highest in the world, these mountains made it difficult for immigrants and invaders to enter India. -These mountains slowed entry for settlements into India.

3 Rivers/Climate Indus River Ganges River Monsoons (seasonal)
High Temperatures -Rivers formed natural highways that encouraged exchange as well as unity in the Harappan civilization. -River supplied a continuous flow of water for agriculture. -Flood waters enriched the soil and made it fertile. -It was much easier to cultivate the fertile land and grow a variety of crops. -It not only helped the Harappan’s to produce enough food grains for themselves but also keep surplus. The main crops grown were wheat, barley and peas and in some places rice was also grown. -Rivers were used for fishing and transportation of goods. This was the easiest and cheapest form of transport which later helped in the development of trade. People could go too far off places by using their crude boats. Rivers also posed challenges. Farmers had to control floods and channelize water to their crops. Dams, canals, dykes had to be built. Farmers worked together to build dykes, dig canals, and carve out irrigation ditches. Such large scale projects required leadership and an organized government. Two features dominate India’s climate, Monsoons and high temperatures. Monsoons are winds that mark the seasons in India, November until the following March, Winds blow from the north to the northeast. Most of the moisture goes to the Himalaya Mountains and little rain fell on India valley during the season. Temperatures in summer could reach 120 F.

4 Civilizations Indus River Valley 2500 B.C. 1500 B.C
Harappa, Mohenjo Daro Water System Two-story brick homes Citadel Food Storage Canals & Ditches -Much of what we know of this civilization comes from the ruins of these two ancient cities. Archaeological digs at Harappa and Mohenjo Daro has revealed much about the Indus Valley Civilization. Both cities were large planned out very well. Wide streets crossed at rights angles. Each city had a water system with public baths and brick sewers. -Two-story houses- some of these bathrooms and garbage chutes. (For protection from seasonal floods and polluted waters, the settlements were built on giant platforms and elevated grounds. Upon these foundations, networks of streets were laid out in neat patterns of straight lines and right angles. The buildings along the roads were all constructed of bricks that were uniform in size.) The brick houses of all city dwellers were equipped with bathing areas supplied with water from neighborhood wells. Sophisticated drainage systems throughout the city carried dirty water and sewage outside of living spaces. Even the smallest houses on the edges of the towns were connected to the systems cleanliness was obviously of utmost importance. -Citadel – Each city had a strong central fortress built on a platform, these were storehouses for grain. In Harappa the storehouses could hold enough food to feed 35,000 people. -Food storage – Harappan leaders need to be strong and very good at planning to store and distribute food Reasons for planning could include threats from invaders or crop destroying floods. -Rivers also posed challenges. Farmers had to control floods and channelize water to their crops. Dams, canals, dykes had to be built. Farmers worked together to build dykes, dig canals, and carve out irrigation ditches. Such large scale projects required leadership and an organized government.

5 Indo-Aryan The Vedic Age Religion Society Economy Southern India
The Vedic Age – Cattle and sheep herders, skilled warriors, rich pasturelands. Indo-Aryan “a desire for more cows”, Archers & charioteers enabled the Indo-Aryans to conquer northern lands. The Vedas? – Indo-Arynas great works of religious literature. Scholars recorded the Vedas in Sanskrit/ Indo-Aryan language Religion – Gods of nature “Earth, fire, light, rain, sky, storms, sun, and water. The sky became father, earth was mother. No Temples. Ceremonies were performed in open spaces chosen for important occasions. Ritual Sacrifices –food, meat, butter, milk, and barley cakes The plant juice would bring immortality. Special Priests Brahmins- knew proper forms and rules. Sanskrit became the language used by priests in their rituals. Society- Aryan settlements joined to form small independent states or territories each governed by a raja (a chief) Military leader, lawmaker, and judge. Royal council assisted him. Gan-gentic The Indo Aryans light skinned, social class structure merchants, traders, farmers, and servant below Marriage very important to Indo-Aryan institution. Parents arranged marriages, marriage by purchase or capture, marriage for love were also recognized. Society value of sacrificing. Read passage on 58 Economy – raising wheat and barley on rich plains of the Indus and Ganges Rivers. Irrigation was used to grow rice. (CROPS, what kinds) New social order, language of sanskrit spread all over India, new religious ideas how the world works. Religious values changed as social classes became more rigid and closely identified with ritual purity. Southern India- The southern subcontinent was protected from invasion from the north by mountains. People of the south able to hold on to their disticnt ways of life. The landscape of southern India made unification of its peoples difficult. People divided in social groups. Farmers hunter-gathers. Trade cotton spices, and ivory.

6 Religion Indus River No Temples Worshiped Great God Aryans
Vedas (Sacred Literature) Reincarnation Upanishads No Temples, rituals open Brahmins (Priests) Hinduism & Buddhism

7 Government Indus Valley Priest Kings Strong Central Government Aryans
Raja Royal Council

8 Written Language Pictographs Sanskrit

9 Social Classes Indo-Aryans Warriors, Priests
Merchants, Traders, Farmers Peasants Caste System 4 Varnas “Untouchables” Birth determined caste

10 Achievements City Planning (Well structured) Sewer Systems
Written Language Irrigation Inoculations

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