Presentation on theme: "ACIDS, BASES, AND PH pp. 39-44. NEED TO MEMORIZE THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS FOR YOUR QUIZ AND TEST! ELEMENTS H: hydrogen O: oxygen N: nitrogen."— Presentation transcript:
NEED TO MEMORIZE THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS FOR YOUR QUIZ AND TEST! ELEMENTS H: hydrogen O: oxygen N: nitrogen C: carbon Na: sodium Cl: chlorine K: potassium S: sulfur COMPOUNDS H 2 O: water NaCl: sodium chloride/salt H 2 SO 4 : sulfuric acid HCl: hydrochloric acid NaOH: sodium hydroxide CO 2 : carbon dioxide O 2 : oxygen gas
ACIDS AND BASES H 2 O = water H + = hydrogen ion H 2 O + H + H 3 O + OH - = hydroxide ion
WHAT IS AN ACID? o solution that has an excess of H+ ions. o It comes from the Latin word acidus that means "sharp" or "sour". o The more H + ions, the more acidic the solution.
PROPERTIES OF AN ACID o Tastes Sour o Corrosive o which means they break down certain substances. Many acids can corrode fabric, skin,and paper
USES OF ACIDS o Acetic Acid = Vinegar o Citric Acid = lemons, limes, & oranges. It is in many sour candies such as lemonhead & sour patch. o Ascorbic acid = Vitamin C which your body needs to function. o Fertilizers, steel, paints, and plastics. o Car batteries
WHAT IS A BASE? o solution that has an excess of OH- ions. o Another word for base is alkali.
PROPERTIES OF A BASE o Feel Slippery o Taste Bitter o Corrosive
USES OF BASES o Cleaning products o The OH- ions interact strongly with certain substances, such as dirt and grease. o Chalk and oven cleaner are examples of familiar products that contain bases.
PH o measures acidity (from 0-14) and how much OH-/H + is present. The closer to 0, the more the H + 0 -6 = acid 7 = neutral 7-14 = base o Can use indicators to tell the pH (phenol red, pH paper, litmus, red cabbage)
PH SCALE o A change of 1 pH unit represents a tenfold change in the acidity of the solution. o For example, if one solution has a pH of 1 and a second solution has a pH of 2, the first solution is not twice as acidic as the second—it is ten times more acidic.