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Nominations and Campaigns

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Presentation on theme: "Nominations and Campaigns"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nominations and Campaigns
Chapter 9

2 The Nomination Game Nomination: Campaigning :
The official endorsement of a candidate for office by a political party. Generally, success requires momentum, money, and media attention. Campaigning : The candidate’s work to win support of voters

3 The Nomination Game Deciding to Run
Campaigns are physically and emotionally taxing. Other countries have short campaigns - generally less than 2 months. U.S. campaigns (especially for President) can last 18 months or more. Most candidates have previous government experience

4 Presidential Primaries
Each state selects delegates to send to the Democratic and the Republican national conventions Delegates choose the party’s candidate Today, delegates are a rubber stamp for citizens’ votes

5 The Nomination Game Competing for Delegates The Caucus Road
Caucus: Meetings of state party leaders. Used to select delegates. Now organized like a pyramid from local precincts to the state’s convention. Not used by many states. The Iowa caucus is first and considered the most important.

6 The Nomination Game Competing for Delegates The Primary Road
Primary: Elections in which voters choose the nominee or delegates pledged to the nominee. Most states moved to primary as a reform to corrupt caucus. Most states use a primary (there are various forms). Frontloading is the tendency of states to hold primaries early - New Hampshire is first. Generally primaries serve as elimination contests.

7 National or Regional Primaries
Read the Primary Reform segment Answer the questions 1. What are the biggest problems in today’s primary system? What’s the difference between a national and regional primary? 3. What are the + / - of each? 4. If you had the authority to do so, would you reform the current system? Defend your answer

8 The Nomination Game Evaluating the Primary and Caucus System
Disproportionate attention to the early ones. Prominent politicians find it difficult to make time to run. Money plays too big a role. Participation in primaries and caucuses is low and unrepresentative. The system gives too much power to the media.

9 The Nomination Game The Inflated Importance of Iowa and New Hampshire (Figure 9.1)

10 The Nomination Game The National Convention
Official nominations and candidate speeches take place at the convention (in summer). Used to choose the candidate here, but now they are a basic formality - which means less TV time. Party platform: Statement of its goals and policies and general beliefs.

11 The Nomination Game The Declining Coverage of Conventions on Network TV (Figure 9.2)

12 National Conventions Delegates cast votes for their presidential candidate at national conventions based on results from state primaries Reformed since 1968 so they are more fair/not corrupt Some convention seats are reserved for superdelegates—party leaders who automatically earn a vote at the convention

13 General Elections Are the final stage of the presidential election process—choose office holder Take place on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November (Constitution) Incumbent presidents have advantages Credit claiming, media attention And disadvantages Poor economy can hurt; low approval ratings

14 The Campaign Game The two presidential candidates embark on a national campaign to win office Modern campaign techniques include Television advertising, Televised public appearances, Direct mail campaigns An official web site with platform

15 The Campaign Game Role of media in the Campaign
Media closely follow campaigns Focus on candidate’s activities and poll results Critics fear campaigns center around a candidate’s image rather than political beliefs

16 Key Concepts Today Why do successful candidates need so much money to win? What rules are in place to regulate campaign finances? How does money effect campaigns and politics?

17 Money and Campaigning The necessity of television has made American campaigns very expensive Politicians spend as much time fund raising as doing their jobs Money comes from corporations and individuals Why is Campaign Financing a problem?

18 Money and Campaigns As the cost of campaigns has increased, Congress created laws to bring spending down Citizens and candidates have challenged these laws On what grounds could you challenge a law that limits how much a candidate can spend?

19 Money and Campaigning: Reforms
Federal Election Campaign Act (1974) Created the FEC to administer campaign finance laws for federal elections. Created the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. Provided partial public financing for presidential primaries (matching funds). Created PACs as a way to track interest group spending Provided full public financing for major party candidates in the general election. Required full disclosure. Limited Contributions to $1000.

20 Buckley v. Valeo, 1976 Landmark Supreme Court Case challenging Federal Election Control Act The Court ruled the following : $1000 donation limit is valid; The limit on donations by a candidate from their personal funds violates their First Amendment rights of free speech Candidates can contribute to themselves without limit

21 Money and Campaigning Soft Money McCain-Feingold Act (2002)
One loophole around FEC Act allowing businesses and wealthy to make unlimited contributions Contributions must be used for party-building expenses or generic party advertising but can be used by Presidential candidates McCain-Feingold Act (2002) Banned soft money, Increased amount individuals can contribute $2000 Limited “issue ads.”

22 Money and Campaigning: PACs
Political Action Committees (PACs) Created by law in 1974 as part of FEC Act Allows corporations, labor unions and other interest groups to donate money to campaigns. As of 2009 there were 4611 PACs. There is NO limit to the amount PACs can spend Donate to candidates who support their issue, regardless of party affiliation Not sufficient data that PACs “buy” candidates PACs play a great role in congressional races NOT as much in Presidential

23 Money and Campaigning

24 Citizens United v. FEC, 2010 Landmark Supreme Court case that struck down parts of McCain-Feingold Act Ruled that restrictions on corporate spending (or unions) in elections is a violation of 1st Amendment free speech rights Issue ads OK; disclosure of who funds the ads is NOT required

25 Money and Campaigning Are Campaigns Too Expensive?
Fund raising takes up lots of time. Incumbents do worse when they spend more money because they need it when they face tough challengers. The doctrine of sufficiency suggests that candidates need just “enough” money to win, not necessarily “more.”

26 The Impact of Campaigns
Campaigns have three effects on voters: Reinforcement, Activation, Conversion Mostly, they only reinforce & activate Selective perception: pay attention to things we agree with. Party identification still has an affect Incumbents start with a substantial advantage

27 Ch 9 Quiz Corrections McCain-Feingold: raised contributions from individuals to $2000 (from $1000) PAC money influences congressional races more than presidential races Criticisms of the Primary System They have low turnout/are NOT representative Takes money and early victories to win Late primaries are often ignored; early ones receive great attention / importance

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