2 The Nomination Game Nomination: Campaigning : The official endorsement of a candidate for office by a political party.Generally, success requires momentum, money, and media attention.Campaigning :The candidate’s work to win support of voters
3 The Nomination Game Deciding to Run Campaigns are physically and emotionally taxing.Other countries have short campaigns - generally less than 2 months.U.S. campaigns (especially for President) can last 18 months or more.Most candidates have previous government experience
4 Presidential Primaries Each state selects delegates to send to the Democratic and the Republican national conventionsDelegates choose the party’s candidateToday, delegates are a rubber stamp for citizens’ votes
5 The Nomination Game Competing for Delegates The Caucus Road Caucus: Meetings of state party leaders. Used to select delegates.Now organized like a pyramid from local precincts to the state’s convention.Not used by many states.The Iowa caucus is first and considered the most important.
6 The Nomination Game Competing for Delegates The Primary Road Primary: Elections in which voters choose the nominee or delegates pledged to the nominee.Most states moved to primary as a reform to corrupt caucus.Most states use a primary (there are various forms).Frontloading is the tendency of states to hold primaries early - New Hampshire is first.Generally primaries serve as elimination contests.
7 National or Regional Primaries Read the Primary Reform segmentAnswer the questions1. What are the biggest problems in today’s primary system?What’s the difference between a national and regional primary?3. What are the + / - of each?4. If you had the authority to do so, would you reform the current system? Defend your answer
8 The Nomination Game Evaluating the Primary and Caucus System Disproportionate attention to the early ones.Prominent politicians find it difficult to make time to run.Money plays too big a role.Participation in primaries and caucuses is low and unrepresentative.The system gives too much power to the media.
9 The Nomination GameThe Inflated Importance of Iowa and New Hampshire (Figure 9.1)
10 The Nomination Game The National Convention Official nominations and candidate speeches take place at the convention (in summer).Used to choose the candidate here, but now they are a basic formality - which means less TV time.Party platform: Statement of its goals and policies and general beliefs.
11 The Nomination GameThe Declining Coverage of Conventions on Network TV (Figure 9.2)
12 National ConventionsDelegates cast votes for their presidential candidate at national conventions based on results from state primariesReformed since 1968 so they are more fair/not corruptSome convention seats are reserved for superdelegates—party leaders who automatically earn a vote at the convention
13 General ElectionsAre the final stage of the presidential election process—choose office holderTake place on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November (Constitution)Incumbent presidents have advantagesCredit claiming, media attentionAnd disadvantagesPoor economy can hurt; low approval ratings
14 The Campaign GameThe two presidential candidates embark on a national campaign to win officeModern campaign techniques includeTelevision advertising,Televised public appearances,Direct mail campaignsAn official web site with platform
15 The Campaign Game Role of media in the Campaign Media closely follow campaignsFocus on candidate’s activities and poll resultsCritics fear campaigns center around a candidate’s image rather than political beliefs
16 Key Concepts TodayWhy do successful candidates need so much money to win?What rules are in place to regulate campaign finances?How does money effect campaigns and politics?
17 Money and CampaigningThe necessity of television has made American campaigns very expensivePoliticians spend as much time fund raising as doing their jobsMoney comes from corporations and individualsWhy is Campaign Financing a problem?
18 Money and CampaignsAs the cost of campaigns has increased, Congress created laws to bring spending downCitizens and candidates have challenged these lawsOn what grounds could you challenge a law that limits how much a candidate can spend?
19 Money and Campaigning: Reforms Federal Election Campaign Act (1974)Created the FEC to administer campaign finance laws for federal elections.Created the Presidential Election Campaign Fund.Provided partial public financing for presidential primaries (matching funds).Created PACs as a way to track interest group spendingProvided full public financing for major party candidates in the general election.Required full disclosure.Limited Contributions to $1000.
20 Buckley v. Valeo, 1976Landmark Supreme Court Case challenging Federal Election Control ActThe Court ruled the following :$1000 donation limit is valid;The limit on donations by a candidate from their personal funds violates their First Amendment rights of free speechCandidates can contribute to themselves without limit
21 Money and Campaigning Soft Money McCain-Feingold Act (2002) One loophole around FEC Act allowing businesses and wealthy to make unlimited contributionsContributions must be used for party-building expenses or generic party advertising but can be used by Presidential candidatesMcCain-Feingold Act (2002)Banned soft money,Increased amount individuals can contribute $2000Limited “issue ads.”
22 Money and Campaigning: PACs Political Action Committees (PACs)Created by law in 1974 as part of FEC ActAllows corporations, labor unions and other interest groups to donate money to campaigns.As of 2009 there were 4611 PACs.There is NO limit to the amount PACs can spendDonate to candidates who support their issue, regardless of party affiliationNot sufficient data that PACs “buy” candidatesPACs play a great role in congressional races NOT as much in Presidential
24 Citizens United v. FEC, 2010Landmark Supreme Court case that struck down parts of McCain-Feingold ActRuled that restrictions on corporate spending (or unions) in elections is a violation of 1st Amendment free speech rightsIssue ads OK; disclosure of who funds the ads is NOT required
25 Money and Campaigning Are Campaigns Too Expensive? Fund raising takes up lots of time.Incumbents do worse when they spend more money because they need it when they face tough challengers.The doctrine of sufficiency suggests that candidates need just “enough” money to win, not necessarily “more.”
26 The Impact of Campaigns Campaigns have three effects on voters:Reinforcement, Activation, ConversionMostly, they only reinforce & activateSelective perception: pay attention to things we agree with.Party identification still has an affectIncumbents start with a substantial advantage
27 Ch 9 Quiz CorrectionsMcCain-Feingold: raised contributions from individuals to $2000 (from $1000)PAC money influences congressional races more than presidential racesCriticisms of the Primary SystemThey have low turnout/are NOT representativeTakes money and early victories to winLate primaries are often ignored; early ones receive great attention / importance