Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Renaissance and Reformation Section 1 The Renaissance."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 12 Renaissance and Reformation Section 1 The Renaissance
Learning Objectives The students will be able to: List three characteristics of the Renaissance Characterize the city-states which were centers of political, economic, and social life in Renaissance Italy.
What was the Renaissance? What was the Renaissance, and where did it begin? Italy Italian Cities Urban Societies Major Trading Centers Secular Moved away from life in the church Focuses more on material objects and enjoying life
1300-1600 Renaissance = Rebirth of art and learning
The Renaissance was a time of renewal Renaissance means rebirth and Europe was recovering from the Dark ages and the plague. People had lost their faith in the church and began to put more focus on human beings.
Laocoon Renewal of interest in Greco- Roman heritage
Three important characteristics of the Renaissance
1. Wealthy Urban Centers (City-States) with a secular outlook on life = possibility to enjoy material things
How did the Crusades contribute to the Renaissance? Increased demand for Middle Eastern products Stimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern markets Encouraged the use of credit and banking Church rule against usury and the banks’ practice of charging interest helped to secularize northern Italy. Letters of credit served to expand the supply of money and expedite trade. New accounting and bookkeeping practices (use of Arabic numerals) were introduced.
Secularism: Focus on good living, worldly concerns
2. Recovery from disaster & a rebirth of interest in ancient culture
3. A new view of human beings with regard to ability & individual worth
http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/index1.html Benozzo Gozzoli 1420 Renaissance Man: Skilled in many areas: Well educated Witty Artistic Athletic
http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/index1.html Renaissance Woman: Beautiful Charming Educated: but not ambitious –even less politically active than Medieval women
Leonardo da Vinci Renaissance Man painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, & mathematician
Three Italian City- States played an important role in Italian politics
Milan Located at the crossroads of trade routes = rich & powerful Visconti family was in power until 1447 Francesco Sforza conquered the city Francesco Sforza
Venice Republic with an elected leader called a Doge Truly ruled by a small group of wealthy merchant- aristocrats.
Florence Major city of the Renaissance in northern Italy Controlled by the Medici Family
http://sgwww.epfl.ch/berger/Jardin- noframe/cosme-eleonore_english.html Controlled Florence behind scenes for 30 years Inherited his money and business from his father –Used his wealth to control votes in the city People became angry because of this Ran him out of the city All the money went with him! Begged to have him back! Brought peace to northern Italy Patron of the arts –Spent a fortune on sponsoring artists Cosimo de Medici
Girolamo Savonarola A Dominican preacher who condemns the corruption and excesses of the Medici Family Takes control of Florence Regulates gambling, horseracing, swearing, painting, music, & books
Major Italian Cities Italy failed to become united during the Ages. Many independent city-states emerged in northern and central Italy that played an important role in Italian politics and art. Milan Venice Florence Milan One of the richest cities, it controls trade through the Alps. Venice Sitting on the Adriatic, it attracts trade from all over the world. Florence Controlled by the De Medici Family, who became great patrons of the arts. Genoa Had Access to Trade Routes All of these cities: Had access to trade routes connecting Europe with Middle Eastern markets Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe Were initially independent city-states governed as republics
Political Ideas of the Renaissance Niccolò Machiavelli The Prince Machiavelli believed: “One can make this generalization about men: they are ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for profit” Machiavelli observed city-state rulers of his day and produced guidelines for the acquisition and maintenance of power by absolute rule. He felt that a ruler should be willing to do anything to maintain control without worrying about conscience.
Better for a ruler to be feared than to be loved Ruler should be quick and decisive in decision making Ruler keeps power by any means necessary The end justifies the means Be good when possible, and evil when necessary
The Prince How to get and keep political power Abandoned morality as the basis for analyzing political power “the end justifies the means” For the sake of the state, a prince must be willing to let his conscience sleep
Nobles Ideals of the nobles written in The Book of the Courtier Noble born, not made must gain a classical education and be a warrior Show achievements with grace
Peasants & Townspeople Peasants: –85-90% of the total population –End of Serfdom Townspeople: –Patricians (wealthy merchants ) –Burghers (shopkeepers & masters) –Workers
Family & Marriage Arranged marriages – to strengthen family ties Dowry – money given by the wife’s family to the husband upon marriage Father-husband was the center of the family –Authority was absolute till he died or freed his children