Presentation on theme: "China Early Dynasties, Beliefs. Dynastic China Chinese history can be divided into dynasties: –Dynasty: Series of rulers from the same family –Dynastic."— Presentation transcript:
Dynastic China Chinese history can be divided into dynasties: –Dynasty: Series of rulers from the same family –Dynastic rule: 1650-1911 This lesson will cover early Chinese dynasties, prior to 1300’s.
Dynastic China Shang Dynasty –Shang was China’s earliest known dynasty, 1650 BC –King was seen as link between heaven and earth. –Writing system developed –Calendar created.
Dynastic China Zhou Dynasty: ruled for 900 yrs beginning in 1027. –Key development: Mandate of Heaven Heaven granted a ruler the right or “mandate” to rule People owed their loyalty to ruler. Ruler had power and responsibility “Dynastic Cycle” –Period of Warring States: About 700 BC, powerful lords set up their own independent states:
Dynastic China Qin Dynasty: 221 BC –1 st Emperor: Shi Huangdi Single law code Standard weights and measures Road building Built Great Wall: used forced labor. (actually joined and extended already existing walls) –“Every stone cost a human life”
Dynastic China Han Dynasty: 202 BC-AD 220 –Liu Bang, peasant leader overthrew the Qin. –Trade expanded –Buddhism introduced into China. –Restored Confucian learning: Civil Service System: The best and brightest work for government. –Paper, foot stirrup, wheel barrow, acupuncture, medical colleges
Dynastic China Tang Dynasty (618-906) and the Song Dynasty (960-1279) –Trade increased –Strong Navy Ships: sternpost rudder and magnetic compass
Dynastic China Under Mongol rule –By 1279 Mongols ruled all of China –Adopted some Chinese culture. –Famous Mongols: Genghis Khan and Kubilai Khan Chinese people resented foreign rule –1368 Zhu Yuanzhang, peasant leader, drove Mongols out of China. He started the Ming Dynasty
China Philosophies –Confucianism: Founder: Confucius, born 551 during period of chaos Developed ideas on how to restore peace and harmony Teaching were collected in a book: The Analects Major Teaching: 5 Key Relationships –Ruler-ruled –Father-son –Older brother-younger brother –Husband-wife –Friend-friend –**Filial Piety: duty and respect owed to parents by kids. Living roles properly would insure peace and stability and restore order
China Taoism (Daoism) –Founder: Lao Zi: how to regain order? –People and nature linked. –Do nothing contrary to nature –Confucian rules disturb natural order –Simplicity: best government has fewest rules Live simply, close to nature
China Legalism: –Shaped early China’s history –Han Fei Zi: 281-233 BC –famous legalist writer. Part of ruling family. –People respond to rewards and punishments –“Only harsh laws from a strong ruler ensure order in society” –In 221 BC the Qin used Legalist ideas to unite China.
Buddhism Began in India Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BC) Spread to China in 1 st century AD. Appealed to Chinese: –It offered an escape from sufferings of life. –Promised salvation for the good and punishment for the wicked. –In time Buddhism blended with Chinese values such as Confucian ideas of proper behavior and respect for family
Buddhism Main teaching: People suffer as a result of their own desires. How to end suffering –4 Noble Truths Life is suffering Cause of suffering is desire Suffering ends when desire ends Enlightenment is reached by following the 8 Fold Path