Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Late Middle Ages. The Hundred Years War 1337 - 1453 The Treaty of Paris 1259 –The English King agreed to become - for himself and his successors."— Presentation transcript:
The Hundred Years War 1337 - 1453 The Treaty of Paris 1259 –The English King agreed to become - for himself and his successors – vassal of the French crown for the duchy of Acquitaine
Causes of War French expansionist wanted the French Kings to resolve and absorb the duchy of Aquitaine. Philip VI of France confiscated the duchy in 1337 – ending the Treaty of Paris agreement with England.
Causes Continued Edward III – King of England claimed he had the right to the French crown as the only male heir to the Capatian dynasty. –Saw this as the only way to secure his claim to Aquitaine.
Causes Continued Economic Factors: –Struggle for control of the Flemish towns. –Flanders was a fief of the French crown. –Flemish / English wool trade was the cornerstone of both countries economies.
Support for the war England –To win back the rightful claim of their King. (Aquitaine) –Promise of military conquest & spoils of war. –Opportunity to display chivalric behavior. –Propaganda stressing the evils of the French monarch. France –Defense of French lands. –French expansionist policy. –Fascination with the glories of war. –Promise of employment for soldiers.
Events of the War 1346: Battle of Crecy –English longbow men defeat the French Knights. 1356: Poitier –French King was captured and held for ransom. 1415: Agincourt –English defeat of a superior French force.
Joan of Arc 1412 - 1431 Believed that God spoke to her through visions. –1428: She convinced the Dauphin to claim his place as the rightful King of France. –Persuaded Charles VII to raise an army to lift the English siege of Orlean. –Captured by the Burgundians in 1431 – sold to the English who then put her to death.
French Victory Patriotism inspired by a new sense of nationalism led to French victories on the battle field. French drove the English out of France during the last 30 years of the war. Only English claim in France that remained was Calais.
Cost & Consequences of the War England –Destruction of southern ports. –Breakdown of civil order in England. –Decline in wool trade. –Failed promises of wealth. –Massive war debt. –Rise of Parliamentary power. France –Destruction of land and property. –Massive civilian & military loses. –Breakdown of trade system with Europe and internally. –Civil ands social conflicts.
Winners & Losers Winners –French expansionist. –French monarchy which was able to consolidate more power. –Parliamentary assembly in England who gained more power over the monarchy. Losers –England –Civilian farmers and merchants. –Soldiers of the war. –French Barons who supported England
Parliamentary development in England Representative assemblies consisting of Nobles, Bishops, Knights, and Burgesses (commoners) –Assembled at the request of the King to raise funds and support for foreign and domestic needs. Two Houses Develop: –House of Lords Nobility & Leaders of the Church. –House of Commons Knights & Burgesses who recognized the power they had over the purse strings of the Kingdom. Statute of 1341: Gained the power to approve or disapprove of taxes imposed by the monarchy.
French Government Provincial Assemblies –Both the Monarch and the Barons of the provinces avoided the assembling of a national assembly. –Language, geographical, economic, legal and political differences kept the government from centralizing. French identified with the area / province in which they lived. –ie. Norman, Burgundian.
Nationalism Feeling of unity based on language, common ancestry and customs, as well as living in a common area. –National pride grew with the propaganda of the war and the victories of armies. Especially in France.