2 Urban GeographyUrban refers to highly developed areas where businesses, people, and industry cluster.Not limited to big cities….also includes sub-urban areas.Where are people and activities distributed in urban areas?What patterns develop in urban areas?
3 Central Business District (CBD) Aka “Downtown”Less than 1% of land areaHigh % of services, public institutionsHigh accessibilityFocal point of transportation
4 Who locates in the CBD? Retailers w/ high threshold Ex. Department storesNow replaced by mallsRetailers w/ high rangeSpecialists, unique shopsRetailers serving downtown workersOffice supplies, coffee shops, dry cleaning, fast food restaurants
5 Characteristics of the CBD Large public buildings such as libraries, churches, stations and town halls.Specialty shops and branches of major department stores.Movie theatres, clubs and theatres.Very little housing, but often hotels.Little or no industry.Offices and other professional buildings.High pedestrian levels and the greatest parking restrictions.Geographical center of the settlement.Area with the highest land value.Well connected by public transport, with large numbers of passengers.High traffic levels.
13 Land Use in CBD’s Land is expensive in CBD’s Tokyo, London, NYC High cost of land forces vertical and underground expansionSkyscrapersUnderground cities
14 Worlds Most Expensive Land Cost of Land per square meter1. Monte Carlo, Monaco – $47, Moscow, Russia – $20, London, England – $20, Tokyo, Japan – $17, Hong Kong – $16, New York, USA – $14, Paris, France – $12, Singapore – $9, Rome, Italy – $9, Mumbai, India – $9,163Land in LDC’s might be closer to $3-15 per square meterRural land is cheaper than urban land
15 Not Found in CBD’s Industry Residents Have relocated to suburban areas Old industrial areas (harbors/ piers) are now tourist attractionsEx. Navy PierResidentsFluctuation: originally rich mansions and crowded apts., then suburbs, now “empty nesters” return in search of nightlife, entertainment, etc.
19 Urban Models 3 models, all developed in Chicago Why Chicago? Flat (prairie)Few physical features that interrupt growth (except Lake Michigan)Predict how cities will developWhere will different groups of people live in urban areas?
20 Concentric Zone Model E.W. Burgess City grows outward in a series of rings5 Rings1. CBD2. Transition (industry/ poor housing)3. Working class4. Better homes5. Commuters/ suburbs
26 Multiple Nuclei Model Harris and Ulmann Multiple nodes (centers) around which activities revolve.Certain activities choose to locate in certain nodes.Ex.Bookstores and bars near college campusHotels and warehouses near airport