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Urban Patterns AP Human Geography.

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Presentation on theme: "Urban Patterns AP Human Geography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urban Patterns AP Human Geography

2 Urban Geography Urban refers to highly developed areas where businesses, people, and industry cluster. Not limited to big cities….also includes sub-urban areas. Where are people and activities distributed in urban areas? What patterns develop in urban areas?

3 Central Business District (CBD)
Aka “Downtown” Less than 1% of land area High % of services, public institutions High accessibility Focal point of transportation

4 Who locates in the CBD? Retailers w/ high threshold
Ex. Department stores Now replaced by malls Retailers w/ high range Specialists, unique shops Retailers serving downtown workers Office supplies, coffee shops, dry cleaning, fast food restaurants

5 Characteristics of the CBD
Large public buildings such as libraries, churches, stations and town halls. Specialty shops and branches of major department stores. Movie theatres, clubs and theatres. Very little housing, but often hotels. Little or no industry. Offices and other professional buildings. High pedestrian levels and the greatest parking restrictions. Geographical center of the settlement. Area with the highest land value. Well connected by public transport, with large numbers of passengers. High traffic levels.

6 Chicago

7 Downtown Traffic



10 Road and Rail In Chicago

11 Where is the CBD?

12 Chicago at Night

13 Land Use in CBD’s Land is expensive in CBD’s Tokyo, London, NYC
High cost of land forces vertical and underground expansion Skyscrapers Underground cities

14 Worlds Most Expensive Land
Cost of Land per square meter 1. Monte Carlo, Monaco – $47, Moscow, Russia – $20, London, England – $20, Tokyo, Japan – $17, Hong Kong – $16, New York, USA – $14, Paris, France – $12, Singapore – $9, Rome, Italy – $9, Mumbai, India – $9,163 Land in LDC’s might be closer to $3-15 per square meter Rural land is cheaper than urban land

15 Not Found in CBD’s Industry Residents Have relocated to suburban areas
Old industrial areas (harbors/ piers) are now tourist attractions Ex. Navy Pier Residents Fluctuation: originally rich mansions and crowded apts., then suburbs, now “empty nesters” return in search of nightlife, entertainment, etc.

16 Skyscrapers

17 Montreal, Quebec, Canada

18 Underground Tunnel System in Montrea

19 Urban Models 3 models, all developed in Chicago Why Chicago?
Flat (prairie) Few physical features that interrupt growth (except Lake Michigan) Predict how cities will develop Where will different groups of people live in urban areas?

20 Concentric Zone Model E.W. Burgess
City grows outward in a series of rings 5 Rings 1. CBD 2. Transition (industry/ poor housing) 3. Working class 4. Better homes 5. Commuters/ suburbs

21 Concentric Zone Model

22 Burgess’ Concentric Zone Model

23 Sector Model Homer Hoyt
City develops in sectors (sections/ wedges) not rings. Industry and retail develop along transportation lines

24 Sector Model


26 Multiple Nuclei Model Harris and Ulmann
Multiple nodes (centers) around which activities revolve. Certain activities choose to locate in certain nodes. Ex. Bookstores and bars near college campus Hotels and warehouses near airport

27 Multiple Nuclei Model

28 Dallas TX (Concentric and Sector)

29 Latin American Model Wealthiest residents live in CBD and long a commercial spine. CBD features a market and town square, left over from colonial days.

30 Sub-Saharan African Model
DeBlij 3 CBD’s Colonial (vertical) Traditional (single story shops) Market Area (open air market) Satellite townships on the edge.

31 Informal Settlements Squatter settlements, favelas (Brazil), townships (Africa), slums, etc. 175 million world wide Large numbers of people migrate to cities rapidly; cities cannot keep up with growth. Poorly constructed houses. Lack basic services: schools, water, electricity, paved roads, sewers.

32 Mumbai, India

33 Brazil

34 Soweto, South Africa

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