Dolly 1996 –A lamb born in Scotland –A fertilized egg with DNA from another lamb 1 st ever cloned mammal
Selective Breeding The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as the parents of the next generation
Selective Breeding Corn developed in Mexico –5,000 yrs. Ago Cows that produce more milk Disease/insect resistant crops
Inbreeding Crossing two individuals that have identical or similar set of alleles Purebred Animals –Golden Retrievers –Arabian Horses
Inbreeding Can increase the chances of inheriting alleles that lead to genetic disorders German Shepherd –Hip dysplasia Dalmatian –Deafness
Hybridization Crossing two genetically different individuals two get the best of both parents Cross –Corn that produces many kernels –Corn that is disease resistant
Cloning Plants An organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced Cutting –Remove a small portion of a desired plant and allow it to grow as a plant itself
Cloning Animals 1 st –Remove an egg cell from one sheep 2 nd –Replace the egg’s nucleus with the nucleus from a cell from another sheep 3 rd –Implant the egg into the uterus of a female sheep 5 month later… –Dolly!!!
Genetic Engineering in Bacteria DNA from one organism is transferred into the DNA of a bacteria Gene Splicing –Into the bacteria’s plasmid (DNA)
Insulin Diabetic lack sufficient amounts of insulin Bacteria produce Insulin –24/7/365 For free!!!
Human Growth Hormone Produced by bacteriaChildren that lack sufficient amounts of HGH can be given injections
Genetic Engineering in other Organisms Inserting genes from bacteria or organisms into the cells of other organisms
Gene Therapy Inserting working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder Cystic Fibrosis –Helps to produce the protein that had been lacking in the patients lungs
DNA Fingerprinting Using DNA to identify suspects’ involvement at a scene of a crime.
The Human Genome Project The main goal of the human genome project is to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human gemone