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1. During the Civil War, factories had to learn to make things more quickly/efficiently. -More production -New tools & methods -Processed foods could.

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Presentation on theme: "1. During the Civil War, factories had to learn to make things more quickly/efficiently. -More production -New tools & methods -Processed foods could."— Presentation transcript:


2 1. During the Civil War, factories had to learn to make things more quickly/efficiently. -More production -New tools & methods -Processed foods could be shipped long distances

3 2. The US had a lot of natural resources. - Coal mines in east for factories & trains - Forests cleared for lumber, used in construction - River ways used to transport items - First oil well created in 1859.

4 3. The government encouraged immigration to meet the demand for labor in factories. - Europeans & Asians - Push factors like political issues, religious discrimination, crop failures - By 1905 almost 1 million a year

5 4. Capitalism & Entrepreneurs - Rags to riches - Free enterprise when people own businesses & can make a profit - Entrepreneurs became heroes, created jobs in factories, mines & building railroads - Government protection with tariffs, laissez- faire policies, strong legal system, private property rights, & predictable, secure government & economy

6 5. Innovation: -Patents increased rapidly for new inventions

7 6. Transportation encouraged innovation - 1883, 3 transcontinental railways - Led to development of time zones in 1884, divided globe into 24 time zones, 1 for each hour of the day - Other transportation allowed wealthy & middle class to live outside large cities - Can move lots of stuff quickly & cheaply - Led to mass production in factories to keep up with demand

8 1. By 1880’s US dominated international markets. - Grain, steel, textiles - Aided by railways & ports - US becomes world economic power

9 2. American Society Changed - Everything became mechanized, including farming - Farmers moved to cities to find jobs in factories - Easy access to clothing & supplies that would have been handmade in past

10 3. Environmental Impact - Industrial waste polluted the soil & waterways - Increasing ag production led to soil erosion & dust storms - National Park Service was created to set aside protected land -Yellowstone 1 st national park in 1872

11 1. Corporations Develop: - group of investors who share ownership of a business - can’t lose more than your original investment - popular during a time of so many new, risky businesses (mining, railroads) - same rights as person, buy & sell property, sue in courts - if one person leaves, others can buy him out - more access to capital -spurred the 2 nd Industrial Revolution in the US

12 2. Corporations gained a competitive edge - Decreased cost of production by paying workers smallest possible wages - Advertised products widely - Supported research laboratories to increase new innovation & technology

13 2. Corporations gained a competitive edge - Monopolies developed - Bought or drove competitors out of business - As only business could set high prices - Cartels formed - Businesses work together to set price & production levels & keep price high

14 3. Mergers were established pg. 446-447 - Horizontal Merger- - Consolidate many firms in the same business - John D. Rockefeller created first trust -Companies assign stock to a board of trustees, board combines them into a new organization, trustees run the organization and get paid a dividend of profit

15 3. Mergers were established pg. 446-447 - Vertical Merger- - Gain control of many businesses that make up all phases of a product’s development -Andrew Carnegie

16 vanderbilt carnegie rockefeller/videos/john-d-rockefeller-oil- money-and-power

17 1. Interstate Commerce Commission: ICC -1887 - Oversee railroad operations that crossed state lines - Couldn’t control transactions or make laws - Could require them to send records to Congress for investigations of unfairness

18 2. Sherman Antitrust Act - 1890 - Outlawed any trust that operated in restraint of trade or commerce among several states - Would later be used to argue against unions

19 Social Darwinism - Survival of the fittest - Wealth is a measure of a person’s value. Those with wealth are more valuable and more fit to survive. - Thought the government should stay out of private business & it was wrong to use public funds to assist the poor. - Often fueled discrimination

20 1. Who were factory workers? - Usually immigrants - Poor English - Desperate for work - Working for low wages - Often women & children b/c cheaper

21 2. What was a day of work in a factory like? - 6 days a week, 12 hours a day - Small, hot, dark, dirty factories called sweatshops - Making mass produced items - Did repetitive work all day - Fined for breaking rules or working slowly - Bosses monitored work & break hours - Dangerous - Noisy - Lacked proper training

22 3. Discuss child labor. - Started b/c parents had to bring kids to work too - No childcare, both parent worked - 10-16 year olds often worked instead of attending school - Children could help family make money - Conditions very harsh - Stunted physical & mental growth - Legislation later passed to stop child labor

23 4. Discuss life in a company town. - Common in mines - Isolated communities - Company towns were owned by businesses & rented to employees - Workers had to buy goods at company store - Charged high rate of interest - Usually owed them most of paycheck when finally got paid - Wage Slavery developed - Couldn’t leave job b/f paying back loan - Segregated by race

24 Captains of Industry or Robber Barons You decide? Write 3-5 sentences on the back of your outline discussing why Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, etc. were captains of industry or robber barons. Provide evidence to support your opinion.

25 1. Early protests used collective bargaining & strikes: -negotiating as a group for higher wages or better working conditions - Refusing to work until demands were met -Sometimes local, others were states or regions

26 2. Socialism was popular - Public, not private control of property of income - Society, not individuals, should be in charge of nation’s wealth

27 3. Knights of Labor - Founded 1869 - Included workers of any trade, skilled or unskilled - Recruited African Americans - Like a secret society - Over 700,000 in 1885 - 1890’s largely disappeared after a number of failed strikes

28 4. American Federation of Labor - Founded 1886 - Craft union, loosely organized skilled workers form about 100 local unions devoted to specific crafts or trades - High dues - No aim of larger social gains, focused on specific worker issues (wages, hours, conditions) - Didn’t allow women & found ways to exclude African Americans - Never as popular as Knights of Labor

29 5. Violence A. Haymarket Square, Chicago, 1886 - Fighting for 8 hour work day in several cities - Protestor threw a bomb, killed a policeman, in the end many were killed - 8 anarchists tried for murder, - Employers became more suspicious of union activities

30 6. Violence B. Homestead Strike, Pennsylvania, 1892 - Carnegie Steel cut workers’ wages - Union called a strike - Frick called Pinkertons, private police, killed several strikers, wounded others - Lasted 2 weeks - Anarchist tried to kill Frick - Union associated with it even though didn’t support it

31 6. Violence C. Pullman Strike, 1893, near Chicago - Made luxury rail cars - Laid off workers & cut wages 25% - Company town - Workers went in to negotiate, he fired 3 workers & shut down plant - American Railway Union came in, called for nationwide strike - President Cleveland sent troops - Debs imprisoned for conspiring against interstate commerce

32  Old immigrants: › Protestants › Northern/Western Europe › Came to farm or stay with family/friends › Saved money, had skill, trade, education  1840’s - Civil War › German & Irish Catholics › Lacked skills & money

33  New Immigrants: › South & Eastern Europe  Italy, Greece, Poland, Hungary, Russia  Over 70% all immigrants by 1900 › Came till WWI started › Unskilled, poor › Catholic & Jewish › Settle din cities, not farms

34  Push Factors: › Land reform & lower prices caused farmers to leave › War & political revolution › Religious persecution  Pull Factors: › Available land for farming › Lots of jobs  Railroads, factories, mines, oil fields, farming, gold › Religious & political freedom › Earlier immigrants who promised to help

35  Often brought only what they could carry › Left most material goods  Steamships were safer & faster › Steerage: worst accommodations, lower decks  no private cabins, crowded & dirty, illness spread quickly

36  Processing station to show they were healthy, had money, skill, or sponsor  Europeans went through New York Harbor & Ellis Island › 1 st & 2 nd class inspected & released › 3 rd Class to Ellis Island  2% denied entry › Ferried to NYC

37  Asian Americans through San Francisco Bay and Angel Island › Chinese Americans not allowed in unless could prove US citizenship or had relatives living in America › Could be held months

38  Americanization: learn English, adopt to dress & diet › Some worked with agents › Others had family/friend contacts to help › Fraternal organizations › Mostly held to traditions  Children of immigrants were highly Americanized  Settled in ethnic neighborhoods near factories › Ghettoes: same language, religion, culture › Sometimes forced, exclusionist policies › Sometimes preferred familiarity

39  Resentment & suspicion › Competition for jobs/housing during recession › Religious & cultural differences › Immigrants would work for lower wages  Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 › Prohibited immigration by Chinese laborers › Limited civil rights of Chinese immigrants in US › Forbid naturalization of Chinese residents  Prohibited entry of anyone who was criminal, immoral, a pauper, or would need public assistance

40  Railroads & waterways connected major cities across US  Many jobs in factories in cities  Education increased  Middle class professions increased › Women’s opportunities in middle class increased as well  City life seen as glamorous  Churches, theaters, social clubs, museums, companionship, entertainment  Transportation made travel easy

41  40% immigrants by 1900  Sometimes factories/companie s recruited immigrants  Steel mills: Polish  NYC textiles: Jewish  Domestic servants: Irish women  Fish Packing NW: Scandinavian

42  Not used to working on a schedule  Difficult to make a living on a farm at this time  City life seemed exciting  Midwestern cities grew most › Minneapolis, St. Paul, Chicago  African Americans moved out of South

43  Water, sewers, schools safety  Mass Transit: › Trolleys, subways, commuter rail lines,  Suburbs  City planning › Segregate parts of city by zoning  Industry, financial, residences, public spaces  Skyscrapers, 10 stories or higher › Safety elevators, steel frames, architecture, building codes  Parks & recreation space  Middle & upper class benefitted most

44 1. Tenements: low-cost, multifamily dwelling to squeeze in as many families as possible  Few windows, little sanitation  Unhealthy & Dangerous › Middle class & wealthy live in suburbs

45 2. Sanitation › Unpaved streets full of trash & dead animals › Alleys clogged › Few had indoor toilets  Didn’t work well in tenements › Epidemics common › Created housing, sanitation, sewer, public health planners  Water from reservoirs for drinking separate from waste water

46 3. Fire, Crime, Conflict › Fireplaces & gas lighting caused many fires  Chicago 1871, killed 2-300, left 100,000 homeless  Led to firefighters professionally › Streets were dangerous  Led to city police force instead of constable or neighborhood watch › Ethnic & racial tensions  Gangs used for protection

47 Pick one of the two: 1. Captains of Industry or Robber Barons › You decide? › Write 1 page or 200 words, discussing why Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, etc. were captains of industry or robber barons. Provide evidence to support your opinion. 2. Where am I from? › Talk to your family or research online where your family is from and how/when the immigrated to America. Write 1 page or 200 words about your findings. Include your source. You may focus on one or both sides of your family.

48  “The Gilded Age” › Mark Twain called the late 19 th century › A rotten core with golden paint › Not a true golden age  Conspicuous Consumption › People wanted & bought many new products on the market › Factories could make them faster & cheaper than ever before, so products were abundant

49  1 st department store  1 st money back guarantee  1 st Advertisements in newspapers  Lowered bulk shipping later › allowed mail order catalogs to ship to rural customers  Companies started using logos › Easily recognizable

50  After the Civil War, many people modernized their homes › The cost of living decreased b/c manufactured products & new technology cost less  Sanitation & healthcare increased › Life expectancy increased  Housework was easier

51  Many things from house to house are the same, regardless of level of wealth › Toys, clothes, food, etc.

52  Joseph Pulitzer, immigrant › Founded World & Evening World in 1880’s › Inexpensive papers b/c of advertisements › Sensationalistic & controversial › Get widest readership, not just inform  William Randolph Hearst › Morning Journal › Sensationalistic also  Later immigrants & African Americans had papers targeted toward them

53  Public education expanded rapidly in the North, slowly in the South › Grade school became mandatory › Many provided public high schools  Few attended › Kindergarten started to help working moms › Literacy rate was 90% by 1900 › Science, woodworking, drafting, industrial skill, civics, business, and English for immigrants › More Higher Education institutions started (teaching, nursing, social work) › More women’s and African American colleges founded

54  Amusement Parks: › 1 st on Coney Island  Outdoor Events: › Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show  Sitting Bull & Annie Oakley › Summer Camp & Church Camp  City Entertainment › Vaudeville shows (musical drama, songs, and off- color comedy) › Movie theatres › Music Halls › Exhibitions of new technology  Sports › Baseball, horse racing, bicycle racing, boxing, and football

55  New Industries: › Textile Factories developed in NC, SC, GA with northern money › Coal, iron, steel processing in Nashville & Birmingham › Farming became more diversified  Smaller farms replaced large plantations › Railroads linked major cities  NOLA, Charleston, Mobile, Montgomery, Atlanta, Dallas, Nashville  Texas to Chicago, TN to DC  Built with prison labor

56  Economic Recovery Limited › Lagged behind › South had natural resources › Lacked well educated workforce  Spent less on education  Lacked technical & engineering schools to train  Low wages › Lacked Capital  Many lost wealth in war  No money to deposit into bank, so weak banks, can’t make loans  Needed northern banks to start businesses or expand

57  Southern farmers still grew predominately cotton  During the war, English factories found other cotton suppliers  When the South started producing cotton, it just drove the price down farther  A beetle destroyed much of the crop in the late 1890’s › Cotton growing dropped over 50% in some states

58  Farmers’ Alliance was founded in Texas › Farmers organized & negotiated as a group for lower supply costs › Connected the South & West › Tried to lower railroad freight prices › Wanted government to regulate interest banks could charge for loans › Invited black farmers to join as well

59  13-15 Amendments gave black southerners legal rights, but Supreme Court decisions pushed those back  Positives › Could vote in local & federal elections › Could serve in the military › Part of Farmers’ Alliance › Could attend basic-literacy schools & teachers’ colleges to learn reading & writing › Civil Rights Act 1875: black patrons could ride trains & use public facilities

60  Negatives › Foundation of the Ku Klux Klan  Used terror and violence to intimidate › Churches became segregated › Laws to reduce black government officials › 1883 Supreme Court rulings stated that public accommodations were a local issue, to be governed by state & local laws  Allowed segregation

61  End of Civil War, 250,000 Native Americans living west of the Mississippi, Great American Desert › Americans lumped them together and called them Indians › Unique cultures, languages, traditions, etc. › Commonality was they saw themselves as part of nature & saw nature as sacred  White people saw nature as a way to get wealthy

62  1834 laws regulated trade relations with Indians & limited the access of white people to the Indian Territory  1850’s › gold & silver had been discovered in Indian territory › settlers wanted to farm there › a railroad wanted to come through

63  1860’s Indians were restricted to smaller lands called reservations: › Specific areas set aside by the government for the Indians’ use › They weren’t allowed to roam the Plains hunting › They suffered from suppression & poverty  1870’s › Had to deal with white man diseases that they had not immunity to › White hunters killed buffalo for the hides & for sport, leaving few for the Native American hunters

64  During the Civil War, Sioux Indians resisted threats to their land by attacking settlements in eastern Minnesota  Government wages war on Sioux  Sioux were pushed into the Dakotas  Other Native American groups then attacked settlements and stagecoach lines

65  Fall 1864, Colorado militia came upon unarmed Cheyenne & Arapaho Indians at Sand Creek › Indians raised the US flag as a sign of friendship › Militia opened fire & killed men, women & children  Sand Creek Massacre caused more Plains Indians so attack white settlers  After the Civil War, Union troops had to come in to subdue the Indians

66  Government announced plan to build a road, Bozeman Trail, through Sioux & Lakota hunting ground to connect gold mining towns  1866 Red Cloud lured troops in an ambush & killed them all  US signed For Laramie Treaty of 1868 › Gave Sioux more land › Government agreed not to build the road › Government agreed to abandon 3 forts › Sioux would live on a reservation with support from government

67  Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs was responsible for › distributing land & supplies who anyone willing to farm › Maintaining peaceful relations with reservation & its neighbors › A school & community building was promised  Many couldn’t live with the restrictions & drifted away from the reservation to hunt again  Agents stole funds & resources  Agents lacked support from government & military to enforce terms of treaty

68  US public outcry from the massacre caused many to question government policy › Reformers & humanitarian promoted education for Indians › Others wanted more strict control › US Indian Peace Commission said they had to become settled farmers, adapted to white civilization for lasting peace to occur

69 › Confined, living in poverty & disease, many were broken & frustrated › Young warriors turned to violence 1. Red River War › End of the southern Plain Indians (Kiowas & Comanches) › End of southern buffalo herds › Western panhandle of Texas open to white settlers

70 1. Red River War › Major issue was 1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge not being enforced  White hunters on Indian hunting ground  Food & supplies from government weren’t delivered  White lawlessness was not punished › Indians attacked a group of Texans near Red River in 1874 › Ended in 1875 when last Comanche hold out surrendered to US troops

71 2. Battle of Little Big Horn › Indians on North Plains (Sioux) › White settlers wanted gold in the Dakotas and Montana › Sioux chiefs Crazy Horse & Sitting Bull were going to drive miners out › US Army sent George Custer in June 1867  Cavalry & other troops followed

72 2. Battle of Little Big Horn › Custer and 250 men unexpectedly came upon about 2,000 Indians  Crazy Horse led charge at the Battle of Little Big Horn  Custer and all his men were killed › Army forces wanted revenge › Small group, including Sitting Bull, escaped to Canada › Crazy Horse & followers surrendered due to weather & starvation › Will & means of resistance were crushed

73 3. Chief Joseph & the Nez Perces › 1877 government decided to move Nez Perces from their reservation in Idaho to a smaller reservation so white settlers had more room › Many were Christians & became successful horse & cattle breeders › Prideful, and had much to lose

74 3. Chief Joseph & the Nez Perces › Tried to evade troops that came to enforce relocation  Chief Joseph led refugees over 1,300 miles to Canada  Stopped just short of the border  Sent to reservation in Oklahoma › Traveled to DC twice to lobby for his people ›

75 4. Wounded Knee › Leaders in the resistance diminished › Ghost Dance became a welcome religious revival  A ritual would banish white settlers and restore the buffalo to the Plains › Became popular, government got worried it could lead to more violence

76 4. Wounded Knee › 1890, government ordered the arrest of Sitting Bull  Several were killed in the confrontation  Indians fled, troops set out after them  Fighting broke out at Wounded Knee, South Dakota  Cavalry outgunned Indians  Blood stained the ground with more than 100 men, women & children › Ended the Indian resistance

77  Reservation policy was a failure › Costly in lives & money  Hoped that if buffalo became extinct, Indians would farm & assimilate to white culture & civilization  Few reformers spoke out against reservations & assimilation

78  1871, Congress passed a law stating that no Indian nation or tribe in the US would be recognized as an independent power with whom the US would make treaties › Indians would now be treated as individuals

79  1887 Congress passed the Dawes General Allotment Act or Dawes Severalty Act › Replaced reservation system with an allotment system › Indians families each granted 160 acre farms  Size needed in the east to support a family  B/c of climate & soil, not enough in the West › Land could not be sold or transferred for original family for 25 years  Was suppose to protect them from getting taken advantage of them  Hopefully by that time, younger generations would be more likely to assimilate

80  Government also opened boarding schools › Encouraged Indians to send their children › Learn rules, culture, language of white Americans

81  Gold & Silver discoveries caused many minors to travel west  Colorado, Nevada, Montana, Idaho, California, etc.  Camps sprang up quickly › Then communities  Some came to the towns to profit by selling supplies to miners  Rough environment with their own rules, code of conduct, and procedures › Vigilantes were common before marshals and sheriffs were appointed › Churches later set up committees to address social problems

82  Boomtowns were only thriving while the gold and silver were there › Even churches & schools closed up and everyone left › Ghost towns  Others (Boise, Denver, Helena) diversified & grew

83  Big companies with capital to buy equipment took over  Drilled deep mine shafts & underground tunnels  Crews were often Mexican & Chinese recruits  Dangerous job  Water was used › Pump at a high pressure to separate metal from silt › Dirtied water used by ranchers for livestock › Caused environmental damage

84  Transcontinental Railroad: link East & West › Delayed until after Civil War  US railroads built by private companies, not government › Congress supported with loans and land grants  1863 Central Pacific started in Sacramento California › Hired Chinese recruits  Union Pacific headed west from Omaha, Nebraska › Hired Irish immigrants

85  Difficult, expensive, harsh working conditions, little regard for safety  Blasted through Sierra Nevada & Rocky Mountains  Met in Promontory, Utah, 1869

86  Effects of the Transcontinental Railroad › Products & people moved faster › Spurred development › Stimulated growth of towns & cities › Intensified need for Indian land › Allowed about 10 territories to meet requirements of becoming a state

87  Cattle ranching helped western population boom  Lots of land with grass for cattle  Railroads provided way to move meat east to market  Competition for land & water

88  Mexican in Texas had long raised longhorn in the west using the open range system › Property was not fenced in › Ranchers claimed ownership & knew boundaries of the property › Branded individual cattle › In spring, cowboys would find those with their brand  Dangerous, lonely, low-paying › Drive the cattle to railroad, then travel east  Could take months

89  Dodge City, Kansas › Cow town where cattle were sold & cowboys were paid › Wild Bill Hickok, Doc Holliday, Wyatt Earp, Jesse James, Bill Pickett › Rodeos

90  End of Open Range System › Barbed wire  Easy to fence large pieces of land › Supply of beef exceeded demand  Prices dropped › Extreme winters & summers in 1880’s  Hard to find hay affordably

91  Great Plains settled for farming › Previously seen as too dry › Boom started after railroads completion  Railroads advertised land for sale  Sent agents to Scandinavia to recruit immigrants  Homestead Act, 1862 › Government gave farms of 160 acres › Had to live on land 5 years & dig a well › Popular with immigrants & Exodusters

92  Mostly men, but women too › Boarding houses, laundry, bakeries  Hard life › Windstorms, blizzards, droughts, plagues of locust, loneliness › No lumber so lived in sod homes  3 foot sod bricks with door and 1 window  Dark, dirty, dingy  Used muslin to keep out bugs, mice, snakes

93  Barb Wire allowed farmers to fence land cheaply › Helped with livestock  New plows, grain drills, windmills, and dry farming techniques were developed to help enable their success  Morrill Act 1862 › Granted land to states for ag colleges

94  Miners, ranchers, farmers, and Native Americans were sometimes at odds with one another › Indians always lost 1. Grazing livestock ruined farmers crops 2. Miners polluted water that was used by ranchers & farmers › Water is recognized as a valuable, limited resource in the west › Use mostly unregulated

95 3. Discrimination & Prejudice A. Ethnic/Racial › West was most diverse part of country  80% of country’s Asian, Mexican & Native American populations › Many languages & religions › Native Americans all lumped together › Fear & distrust of others › Discrimination in large cities  Usually Chinese & Mexican immigrants

96  Last major land rush in 1889 when US opened Oklahoma Territory to homesteaders › Boomers crossed boarders to stake out land › Sooners, snuck in territory, made claims before officially open  1890 US census said no more frontier or uninhabited wilderness

97 1. Segregation & Discrimination Native Americans 1. African Americans 2. Mexican Americans 3. Chinese Americans 4. Women 2. Political Challenges 3. Economic Challenges 4. Farmers Face Challenges

98  Hayes removal of troops from the South meant southern states could do what they wanted to black citizens there › Enacted Jim Crow laws to limit or take away voting rights & keep the south segregated

99 A. Limit Voting Rights › Poll tax: had to pay a tax to vote › Literacy Test: had to understand to vote › Grandfather Clauses: could vote if ancestors did in 1866  So poor, illiterate whites could still vote › Violence › 130,000 in 1849 to 1,300 in 1904  WWII only 3% could vote

100 B. New Segregation Laws › Railcars, waiting stations, jury boxes, Bibles, cemeteries, restaurants, parks, beaches, hospitals, etc. › De facto segregation: restrictions on housing & jobs › Plessey vs. Ferguson, 1896, Supreme Court upheld segregation, stating that “separate but equal” doesn’t violate 4 th Amendment rights  Usually not equal

101  Mostly in West coast area  California, 1879 banned cities from employing those of Chinese ancestry  San Francisco opened a segregated “Oriental” school  White mobs attacked Chinese immigrants stating they stole their jobs › Chinese Exclusion Act passed  Prohibited Chinese workers from entering the country

102 Opposition  Yick Wo vs. Hopkins, 1886, Supreme Court › Sided with Chinese immigrants who challenged California law banning him from operating a laundry  1898 Court ruled that those of Chinese descent could not be stripped of their citizenship › But upheld Chinese Exclusion Act

103  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ending the Mexican American war guaranteed land rights › Not observed, 4/5 lost their land › US courts stated they had to prove that they owned the land › Usually communal land, not individual made that difficult

104 › Used political connections to take land  Santa Fe Ring: prominent whites got fed. government to grant them millions of acres in New Mexico  Mexican Americans lived there  New Mexico not a state, had no representation in DC to challenge it

105 Opposition  Las Gorras Blancas › Group targeted the property of large ranch owners and cut holes in barb wire fences, then burned houses  Alianza Hispano-Americano group formed in 1894 in Tucson to protect culture, interest, and legal rights

106  Fought for own right before  Stopped to fight for abolition  Picked up fight for equal education, right to vote, and right to own property  Frances Willard › Led Women’s Christian Temperance Union › Goal to ban sale of liquor & women’s suffrage › Promoted public health and welfare reform also

107  Susan B Anthony › Felt betrayed that women weren’t included in 14 th & 15 th Amendment  Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton led National Woman Suffrage Association starting in 1869 › Fight for amendment granting women the right to vote › Voted in 1872 and was convicted › 1906 4 states (Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Idaho) allowed female voting

108  Difficult to pass new laws b/c neither Democrats or Republicans had control for long  Presidential elections were by slim margins › Grover Cleveland stands out in era for integrity while many other were corrupt  Political cartoons in media showed concern about the affect of “big business” in government

109  Spoils System common › award jobs to loyal party workers without regard for qualifications  Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883 › Passed by Chester Arthur to reform civil service  System including federal jobs › Workers now gained jobs on expertise and had to maintain them regardless of who won the elections  Had to take an exam  Jobs awarded based on exam score  Only covered a few jobs at first, now most

110 1. Tariffs: › Should we add a tax to goods made overseas to protect US industry? › Republicans wanted high tariffs to protect business › Democrats said that hurt consumers and farmers

111 2. Gold Standard Issue › Greenbacks retired after Civil War b/c of inflation › Coinage Act of 1873 stated government would only make gold coins, not silver  Farmers favored silver as well b/c it could cause inflation, and rising prices increased their income  Bankers & traders feared it would undermine the economy

112 ISSUES: 1. Falling Prices & Higher Debt › 1870-1895 prices fell drastically › Cotton, wheat, corn,  Cost more to farm corn than it sold for  Many burned for fuel › Overproduction was an issue  Too many goods drove the price down › Cost of doing business rose  Machinery, seed, livestock caused debt  Many became tenant farmers

113 2. Big Business Hurts Farmers › Blamed railroads for charging high prices › Blamed banks for charging high levels of interest › Sharecroppers also had to deal with dishonest merchants & landlords who overcharged them or underpaid them › Felt like the country turned their backs on farmers

114 Seeking Change 1. The Grange › Founded by Oliver Kelley in 1867 › Provided education on new techniques › Called for regulation of railroad & grain elevator rates  Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota passed laws setting maximum rates in late 1870’s › Helped prompt Interstate Commerce Commission establishment by federal government

115 2. Farmers’ Alliance › Formed cooperatives to sell crops collectively › Asked federal government to establish “sub- treasuries” to provide low interest loans › Boycott on manufacturers › Colored Farmers’ Alliance joined in 1891  Racial tension slowed any real cooperation

116 3. Populist Party › People’s Party, founded 1892 › Wanted to build new party, grassroots › Spread quickly › Platform adopted in 1892  Dangers of political corruption  Unhappiness with Gold Standard  Unresponsive government › Wanted to coin silver again › Demanded government control of railroads › Tried to reach urban workers too

117 3. Populist Party › Did well in elections of 1892 & 1894 › Tried to unite black & white southerners  Democratic Party undermined them › 1893 started depression that caused more farmers’ suffering

118 3. Populist Party › Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan for 1896 election  Populists endorsed him instead of putting own contender in the race  Believed in free silver & other Populist proposals  Lost to William McKinley & again in 1900  Only won South & West › Populist Party disappeared in early 1900’s

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