Presentation on theme: "Interest Group are: Organizations composed of individuals who share one or more interests in common and who have formed an association for their purpose."— Presentation transcript:
Interest Group are: Organizations composed of individuals who share one or more interests in common and who have formed an association for their purpose of advancing or protecting their interests
Interest groups are similar to political parties Provide method of participation for people Act as linkage institution Provide representation for members Educate people and leaders about issues Agenda building-pushing their issues to front of political consciousness Program monitoring-making sure policies are carried out according to their wishes
Similarities continued … Provide campaign contributions for elections Goal of influencing policy Provide factions for electoral competition
Differences between political parties and interest groups Parties Similar views on most issues Broad coalition of members Affect policy by getting people elected to office Interest Groups Similar views on one or a handful of issues Narrow focus Affect policy through access and lobbying
Types of Interest Groups Private Interest groups: pursue chiefly economic interests that benefit their members Business groups- largest and most powerful of interest groups that represent large business corporations, chambers of commerce, small business National Association of Manufacturers American Petroleum Institute-represents 400 oil and gas corp. US Chamber of Commerce: 3 million businesses, 2,800 state chambers,
Labor Groups Campaign for workers’ issues like minimum wage, workplace safety, industry protection from overseas competition AFL-CIO-88 unions and trade groups United Auto Workers Union National Education Association Teamsters Union
Agriculture Groups Farm groups that lobby for farm subsidies, environmental issues, genetic engineering American Farm Bureau Association In 2005, over $25 billion paid out
Professional Groups Groups that represent occupations that require some special training (question: what do they lobby for?) AMA-American Medical Association ABA-large and well- funded group representing lawyers
Other Private Interest Groups Elderly Foreign governments AARP-powerful lobby for people over 55 with a lot of clout on issues like Social Security and prescription drugs. Seniors vote in large numbers
Public interest groups: groups that lobby for benefits and interests that are not limited to its members Consumer Groups: Nader’s Raiders Women’s Groups: NOW Religious Groups Environmental Groups: Audubon Society, Sierra Club
Single Issue Groups: groups that look at a single issue they want to change National Rifle Association: very rich and powerful Abortion: Operation Rescue, Planned Parenthood Civil Rights: NAACP, LULAC (a group rising in importance as the Hispanic population grows) PETA
Methods Interest groups try to influence the making of public policy by using tactics that are effective for them such as donating campaign funds, filing lawsuits, electioneering. Lobbying provides access for interest groups and forces Congress to take action on their issue. Sometimes no action is a successful strategy because nothing changes, for the interest group.
Direct lobbying Personal Contact: meeting with policymakers and doing what they can to persuade them to support their cause Providing Expertise: using their specialized body of knowledge about a certain topic to aid in writing legislation Testifying at hearings: provide information for Congressional hearings to get their message out and get free publicity (see iron triangle)
Final direct method Giving money: Interest groups endorse candidates who support their interest and then help finance that candidate’s campaign by using PACs. PACs give billions of dollars primarily to congressional campaigns and to incumbents. PACs are limited by law to give $5,000 for each campaign (hard money), but there are no limits on donations to parties (soft money). PACs can also create issue ads without specifically endorsing a particular candidate.
Indirect Methods Mobilizing grassroots: Letter campaigns, phone campaigns-getting members to act on their own Molding public opinion: ads, rallies, rating political leaders; cultivating a positive image of their group in the eyes of the public Coalition building: ex. Daylight Savings Time Coalition was made up of lobbyists representing 7/11, Kingsford charcoal, amusement parks, lawn and garden centers, meat producers, and travel companies