Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11 The Important First Year of Life. The Newborn APGAR Scale is used to assess the condition of a newborn. A score is given for different signs."— Presentation transcript:
The Newborn APGAR Scale is used to assess the condition of a newborn. A score is given for different signs of appearance and response. It is done at one minute and five minutes after the birth A healthy baby has a score of 7-10
Infant Reflexes Infant reflexes or instinctive automatic reactions to stimuli to meet physical needs. Most infant reflexes disappear after the first three months of life. Infant reflexes encourage bonding. Rooting and Sucking Reflexes: Infants turn toward a touch on their cheek or lips and open their mouths and begin to suck. Grasping Reflex: Infants automatically grasp anything that touches the palm of their hand. Startle Reflex: Infants generally respond to a loud noise or sudden change in position The arms and fingers extend and legs are thrown up in the air Rage Reflex: Infants who are restrained from turning their heads or who have their mouths covered for 10 seconds will cry and struggle to get free from the restraint. This reflex helps protect the infant from smothering
Attachment Theory Another element that contributes to newborn survival is their ability to form an attachment to another human being Attachment is an especially close and affectionate bond between infant and caregiver During the Second World War the phenomenon of failure to thrive came to be identified. [orphaned children who were only fed and changed died, whereas the infants who were given even a small amounts of attention and holding, the outcome improved; they gained weight and reached development milestones] The Attachment Theory indicates that all humans need to form close bonds of affection, and that a connected, reciprocal (mutual) relationship early in life is necessary for normal human development. The three individuals who contributed to the development of this theory were: Harry Harlow John Bowlby Mary Ainsworth Using pages 268-270, identify & explain how and what each of the above theorists contributed to the development of this theory.
Attachment Theory cont’d Harry Harlow’s Monkey Research Harlow’s studies showed the importance of touch and contact for the survival and growth of infants http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_O60TYAIgC4 John Bowlby Three stages of separation behaviour: 1.Protest: crying, protesting, and searching for mother 2.Despair: the child becomes very quiet 3.Detachment: the child withdraws as though cut off from the world Children who are secure in their attachment are able to move beyond the detachment stage. Less secure children may need to re-establish a sense of security and may exhibit regression (returning to a level of behaviour that is more common to an earlier stage of development (eg. Bed-wetting, thumb-sucking or wanting a bottle) Mary Ainsworth Secure infants were comfortable with the parent and sometimes sought contact, stood near the parent, ore smiled at him/her from across the room. Infants communicate mostly through crying. When newborns cry and a caregiver responds, they learn that someone is there and they develop a sense of trust which grows out of their early attachment.
Attachment Theory (con’t) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kwxjfuPlArY
Chapter 11 The Important First Year of Life Read text pages 263-283 Define the following terms: Attachment Infant reflexes Motor development Regression Secure infants Sense of trust Separation behaviour Stranger anxiety Attachment Theory (note) Harry Harlow John Bowlby Mary Ainsworth Infant Development – Summarize notes under the following headings: Physical Growth Cognitive Development and Language Acquisition Emotional Development Social Development