Presentation on theme: "GROWING IMMIGRATION Coming to America. Where did they come from? MOSTLY FROM: Northern/Western Europe (Before 1890) –English, Scots, Irish, Germans, Scandinavians."— Presentation transcript:
How did immigrants get here? Steamships made of iron and steel 2-3 weeks to 1 week by 1900 “birds of passage”-Created “birds of passage”-single male worker who came for a short time, earn money, and return home
Steerage – for the “Economically Disadvantaged” Most immigrants traveled in Steerage (large open area under the ship’s deck) Cheap fares Limited toilet facilities with no privacy
Ports of Entry Boston Philadelphia Baltimore Seattle San Francisco New YorkBut New York was most popular!
Entrance to USA In 1886 greeted by Statue of Liberty in NY harbor
What do you think she represented to immigrants?
Castle Garden Overwhelmed by 1890!Overwhelmed by 1890! 70% of all European immigrants arrived in NYC70% of all European immigrants arrived in NYC
ELLIS ISLAND In 1892 an immigration center opened at Ellis Island in NY harbor to “process” those in lower- class/”steerage”In 1892 an immigration center opened at Ellis Island in NY harbor to “process” those in lower- class/”steerage” Immigrants were given a medical check- up and asked a series of questions
Sometimes immigrants were “quarantined” (isolated to prevent the spread of disease): tuberculosis, small pox, measles Some were even deported due to serious diseases: trachoma or other reasons The caption reads... Held at Ellis Island – Undesirable emigrants to be taken back by steamship company that brought them
Deportation of “idiots, imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics, insane persons; …persons with chronic alcoholism The Ellis Island record of an immigrant who deemed "feebledminded" by US officials, then summarily deported. (source: ForgottenEllisIsland.com)
After the Medical Exam, an interview… Name? Occupation? Who paid your fare? Can you read or write? How much money do you have? Have you been to prison or in a poorhouse? Where are you going? Do you have a job already?
Many Immigrants Received New Names Buchenroth=Roth Stefanopoulous= Stevens
Angel Island Located in San Francisco Bay Poor conditions:Poor conditions: Overcrowded Poorly ventilated Filthy conditions Men and women, including husbands and wives, were separated and not allowed to see or communicate with each other again until they were admitted to the country.
Immigrants were processed over a longer period of time: weeks or months vs. days on Ellis Island
Urbanization – Growth of the Cities! Most immigrants tended to settle in the city of their arrival (i.e. - land in Ellis Island, stay in New York…) Ethnic neighborhoods develop – people in the neighborhood share a common language, food, history, etc…(i.e. – Little Italy, Little Greece, Chinatown, etc
Where Did Immigrants Settle? Only 2% of Immigrants went to the south – why?Only 2% of Immigrants went to the south – why?
Immigrant Work Unskilled jobs Low paying – even children had to work Long hours Factory work – tedious, tiring, dangerous So many people needed jobs – you could be replaced very easily – don’t even think about calling in sick!
Limited opportunities Mines, mills, and factories Friends and relatives helped each other Jobs for European Immigrants
Asian (Chinese) Immigrants Viewed with suspicion and subject to hostility because the culture was so different! Kept to themselves with other Chinese immigrants
Jobs for Chinese Immigrants On the railroad (Transcontinental Railroad in particular) Agriculture Mining Fishing Food Prep. Laundry
Jobs for Japanese Immigrants Worked in private business and were not involved much with unions, unlike the Chinese
Limiting Immigration Both Asian Immigration and Other Cultural Groups
Different Legislation and Terms Gentlemen’s Agreement (1906) Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Mexican Immigration Why and How We Limit Immigration Immigration Act of 1924
In San Francisco...(background) Ruling in 1906 that all Asian students must attend private/separate schools. Japan upset and stated that a previous treaty with the US prevented such treatment of immigrants. T. Roosevelt made a compromise with Japanese officials and created the “Gentlemen’s Agreement”
Gentlemen’s Agreement An understanding - Japan agreed not to issue passports to emigrants to the United States (except to certain categories of business and professional men) In return, President Theodore Roosevelt persuades the city of San Francisco to allow children of Japanese parents to attend school with white students. The students go to non-segregated schools. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/229394/Gentlemens-Agreement
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) The US Congress prohibit Chinese workers from entering the US. It was instituted from 1882 to 1902. Also prevented Chinese already here from becoming citizens.
Let’s not forget about America! Mexican Immigration and Jobs Starting in 1902 immigration from Mexico was PROMOTED for jobs in the farming and mining industries of the Southwest.
Why Limit the Number of Immigrants? Because of Racism and Prejudices Economic Issues War Overpopulation Concerns
How are Immigrants Limited? Through the use of Quotas (the share or proportion assigned to each in a division or to each member of a body) Exclusions or Exclusion Acts (used to prevent or restrict the entrance of certain immigrant groups – like Chinese Exclusion Act)
Immigration Act of 1924 The 1890 US Census totaled the amount of immigrants in the US, and then restricted immigration to 2% of each individual group’s total –For example: There were 200,000 Italian immigrants in the US in 1890. Only 4,000 Italians were allowed entry each year.