Environmental Change Environmental change can impact ecosystem stability. Such factors can include: Pollution Acid rain Ozone Layer Greenhouse effect Biomagnification
Pollution Air Pollution Greatest source is burning of fossil fuels Other sources: volcanoes and forest fires http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/164225/350wm/E1680117-Forest_fire-SPL.jpg
Pollution Water Pollution Sewage discharged into rivers and streams Diseases: cholera, dysentery, hepatitis Fertilizer run-off is extra source of nutrients. Causes algal bloom and a decrease in available oxygen
Acid Rain Rain or snow that is more acidic than normal. Effects of acid precipitation: Washes away nutrients from soil Damages plant tissues Disrupts life cycles in water systems Destroys buildings and statues
Ozone O3O3 Ozone Depletion Ozone layer is a protective layer of atmosphere that protects the Earth from UV radiation The ozone layer is thinning. Causes of ozone depletion: CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons) These are man made coolants usedin refrigerants and air conditioners.
Greenhouse Effect Gases called greenhouse gases keep Earth insulated. Concentration of greenhouse gases (mainly CO 2 ) is increasing due to humans causing temperatures to increase. Increase in CO 2 is due to the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation
Biomagnification Concentration of a pollutant in the tissue of an organism increases as you move to higher trophic levels within a food chain Producers pick up pollutants from water that is not metabolized. They are concentrated and stored in their tissues. While energy decreases as it moves up the food chain, toxins increase in potency.
Biomagnification Biological Magnification Herbivores eat the producer and also concentrate and store the pollutant in their tissues. Carnivores eat the herbivores and store the pollutant in their tissues. At each step in the food chain the components become more concentrated.
Biomagnification Example includes a pesticide, DDT, which caused eggshell thinning and resulted in severe population declines for the Bald Eagles. http://tigertailfoods.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/bald-eagle.jpg http://www.scienceclarified.com/images/uesc_04_img0177.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0b/P,p%27-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.svg/200px-P,p%27-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.svg.png