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3 Environmental Change Environmental change can impact ecosystem stability. Such factors can include:  Pollution  Acid rain  Ozone Layer  Greenhouse effect  Biomagnification

4 Pollution Air Pollution  Greatest source is burning of fossil fuels  Other sources: volcanoes and forest fires

5 Pollution Water Pollution  Sewage discharged into rivers and streams  Diseases: cholera, dysentery, hepatitis  Fertilizer run-off is extra source of nutrients.  Causes algal bloom and a decrease in available oxygen

6 Acid Rain  Rain or snow that is more acidic than normal.  Effects of acid precipitation:  Washes away nutrients from soil  Damages plant tissues  Disrupts life cycles in water systems  Destroys buildings and statues

7 Ozone O3O3  Ozone Depletion  Ozone layer is a protective layer of atmosphere that protects the Earth from UV radiation  The ozone layer is thinning.  Causes of ozone depletion: CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons)  These are man made coolants usedin refrigerants and air conditioners.

8 Greenhouse Effect  Gases called greenhouse gases keep Earth insulated.  Concentration of greenhouse gases (mainly CO 2 ) is increasing due to humans causing temperatures to increase.  Increase in CO 2 is due to the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation

9 Biomagnification  Concentration of a pollutant in the tissue of an organism increases as you move to higher trophic levels within a food chain  Producers pick up pollutants from water that is not metabolized.  They are concentrated and stored in their tissues.  While energy decreases as it moves up the food chain, toxins increase in potency.

10 Biomagnification  Biological Magnification  Herbivores eat the producer and also concentrate and store the pollutant in their tissues.  Carnivores eat the herbivores and store the pollutant in their tissues.  At each step in the food chain the components become more concentrated.

11 Biomagnification Example includes a pesticide, DDT, which caused eggshell thinning and resulted in severe population declines for the Bald Eagles.,p%27-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.svg/200px-P,p%27-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.svg.png

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