Presentation on theme: " What do you remember about the Indus River Valley Civilizations? Be ready to share and take out your class notes. Crash Course Video Clip: //www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7ndRwqJYDM."— Presentation transcript:
What do you remember about the Indus River Valley Civilizations? Be ready to share and take out your class notes. Crash Course Video Clip: //www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7ndRwqJYDM
Today’s LEQ: After the first wave civilizations, what stayed the same and what changed?
Indus River Valley, Harappan Society Major society built c. 3000-2500 BCE, mysterious decline by 1500BCE Major cities: Harrapa (Punjab region and Mohenjo-Daro (mouth of Indus River) Harappan society and its neighbors ca. 2000 B.C.E.
Aryans, lighter-skinned invaders from the north Arrived in waves and mixed with local people, Dravidians (darker- skinned sedentary inhabitants of Harappa) Moved eastward towards Ganges River by 1000BCE Difficulty of theory: no evidence of large-scale military conquest
Pastoral economy: sheep, goats, horses, cattle Religious and Literary works: The Vedas Sanskrit: sacred tongue Prakrit: everyday language, evolved into Hindi, Urdu, Bengali Four Vedas, most important Rigveda ▪ 1,028 hymns to gods ▪ Lays out India’s caste system
Soon after Aryan invasion, India began dividing everyone into one of five groups, or castes - Complex system of social division Origins in Aryan domination of Dravidians Resulted in cultural stability in India for thousands of years, but restricted social mobility Jati – subsystem of castes 6
Also, you need a page for the Untouchables And, for Jati
Go to www.worldhistory.abc-clio.comwww.worldhistory.abc-clio.com Username & Password: midtownstaff Switch to ancient database Type “caste system” into the search field In your foldable, provide a description and visual for each social class; Keep in mind, this will serve as your study guide for the upcoming unit test.
Turn in your caste system foldable (is your name on it?!) Use the terms below to write 3-4 sentences that show your understanding of what we covered yesterday. Be ready to share!!!
Unified northern India. Extremely centralized – Maurya Empire! Divided empire into provinces and districts for taxation and law enforcement Feared assassination food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc. 301 BCE gave up his throne and became a Jain (religion focusing on complete non-violence) 10
Chandragupta’s advisor Wrote the Arthashastra: A guide for his king and his ministers Supports royal power The great evil in society is anarchy Therefore, a single authority is needed to employ force when necessary
Ashoka = most important ruler of Mauryan Empire Religious conversion after gruesome battle of Kalinga Religiously tolerant Patronized Buddhist art, architecture and culture. Buddhism expanded. Put up pillars all over India, declaring the peaceful intent of his empire 12
Written mostly in Sanskrit (some in Greek and Aramaic) Cosmopolitan (diverse) empire! Buddhist principles dominate his laws.
Economic crisis follows death of Ashoka Results in power vacuum Regions begin to abandon Mauryan Empire Disappears by 185 CE 14
Next to unify India Profitable trade of cotton and pepper Guptas were Hindu, not Buddhist (although tolerant) Politics = indirect rule Large amount of freedom given to administrators throughout empire “Golden Age” of Indian culture
Medicine Mathematics Astronomy Printed medicinal guides 1000 diseases classified Plastic Surgery C-sections performed Inoculations 500 healing plants identified Decimal System Concept of Zero PI = 3.1416 Solar Calendar The earth is round Gupta India Gupta Achievements
Invasion by pastoralists called White Huns in the 500s = end of Gupta Golden Age Decline of Gupta – north India broke into many separate Hindu kingdoms ruled by rajputs (Hindu princes) Not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7c. Indian history marked by big debate: unity vs. disunity
Create a multiple choice test item for the AP exam that assesses the Maurya and/or the Gupta. Create a problem with four answer choices, one that is correct and three that are incorrect. Make sure your question is challenging! For example, don’t do this: What were the names of the two Classical Age empires of India? A: Wynnland & Appotopia B: Europe & Asia C: Maurya and Gupta D: None of the above