Presentation on theme: "Empires of India Unit 2 Mr. Hardy RMS IB Middle School 2012-2013."— Presentation transcript:
Empires of India Unit 2 Mr. Hardy RMS IB Middle School 2012-2013
Geography of India Located in Southern Asia Hindu Kush Mountain Range Ganges River (East) Indus River (West) – Flooding of rivers Deccan plateau – Dry area that makes up most of central and southern India Monsoons- heavy rainfall and winds (June – October)
Early Societies The Harappan or Indus Valley Culture Harappa and Mohenjo Daro – Located in Indus Valley about 3300 BC Carefully planned cities – very advanced – Over 1,050 cities and settlements. Advanced plumbing system Huge Public Baths Economy- Agriculture – Used silt from annual flooding Written language – not yet deciphered. Known to have traded with Mesopotamia Not Many Weapons Found – but many toys. Seems to have disappeared about 1700 B.C. due to reasons unknown. (Natural nuclear disaster, or atomic warfare?????)
Aryan Civilization Society who moved into the Indus River Valley following the collapse of Harrappa and Mohenjo Daro, about 1700 – 1500 BC. Sanskrit- ancient writing language – Vedas (Collection of hymns and prayers) forerunner of Hinduism Created the iron plow- allowed farmers to move into dense jungle areas
Social Classes Caste system- rigid social structure, can not move between classes Varnas- 4 sections of society or social classes Higher the caste the greater religious purity (Based off of Hinduism) – Priests – Warriors – Merchants/ farmers – Peasants/ servants *Untouchables- so impure not in the caste system, demeaning jobs Karma – cause and effect – deeds Dharma – that which holds up the natural order of things
Dharma Dharma is the natural order of things Dharma is what is proper and good in vocation, religion, and duty. Better to be an excellent elephant poop scooper, if that is your station in life, than to try to rise above your station in life, for example a warrior, and not do it so well.
TIME TO REFLECT IN YOUR NOTEBOOK, ANSWER THESE TWO QUESTIONS. 1.Many toys have been found in the excavations of the Indus Valley society. Other than the fact that they may have liked toys, what can you conclude about the Indus Valley society? 2.How does Hinduism and dharma help hold the Indian caste system in place?
Mauryan Empire 326 BC, Alexander the Great conquers the Indus Valley region. Does not stay and colonize. Alexander’s Macedonian general, Seleucus rules army in the area. 321 BC, Chandragupta Maurya raises huge army and begins Mauryan Empire. 305 BC, Chandragupta and Seleucus make a treaty. Chandragupta gets Seleucus’ Indian lands, in exchange for 500 war elephants. 303 BC, Chandragupta’s army is over 600,000 men and controls an area of over 2,000 miles.
Mauryan Empire Great trading empire, four provinces ruled by governors Huge taxes to support army Bureaucratic Government Secret police, spies, and assassins controlled the poplulation Chandragupta Maurya lived in fear of assassination- food always tasted for poison, never slept in the same place 2 nights in a row.
Mauryan Empire of Asoka circa 279BC Asoka- Grandson of Chandragupta. Considered greatest Indian ruler – Converted Empire to Buddhism- – Guiding principle was, “Peace to All Beings” – Issued edicts to his people guaranteeing peace, fair treatment, religious tolerance, and non-violence. – No warfare Creation of road system – “pit stops” over all care for the people Declined following Asoka’s death in 232BC – 500 years of war and problems to follow – Very weak rulers
Gupta Empire Chandra Gupta I- founder 320 A.D. NO RELATION TO CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYAN! Placed the capital were the palace of the Mauryan empire was (Pataliputra) Period of great achievement in the arts, but particularly in science and mathmatics. “Empire of Luxury”- Golden Age of India Use of The Silk Road in trading – Salt, cloth, and iron trade Controlled India coast to coast. Controlling India coast to coast allowed the Gupta Empire to trade west toward the Mid East and Europe and East to China and the Far East. Through this trade, they became very, very Rich!
Accomplishments of the Gupta Astronomy- proved Earth was round, more that 1,000 years before voyage of Columbus. Calculated almost exact length of a solar year at 365.3586805 days. Developed calendar, weeks and hours Architecture- stupa – Dome shaped buildings housed relics of Buddha. Medicine – Catalog of over 1,000 diseases and more than 500 medicinal plants Performed surgery – Including plastic surgery Mathematics- Decimal point system, use of 0, and calculated value of Pi.
Mughal Empire 1526- Mughals Invaded – Akbar- greatest ruler of the Muhgals (Fair and Just ruler) – Shah Jahan- ruler who built the Taj Mahal Tomb for his wife Took 22 years to build Walls and floors are inlayed with precious stones *Overthrown by his own son