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CSCI 161 Class 1 Martin van Bommel.

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Presentation on theme: "CSCI 161 Class 1 Martin van Bommel."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSCI 161 Class 1 Martin van Bommel

2 History of Computers Modern computer results from
Mechanization of arithmetic Concept of stored programs

3 Mechanization Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) 1642 - Pascal’s Adder
gears and wheels could only add, calculate taxes for his father Gottfried von Liebniz ( ) - calculus 1670’s - Liebniz calculator add, subtract, multiply, divide more reliable and accurate

4 Stored Program Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834)
Jacquard’s Loom metal punch cards to position threads for the weaving process Herman Hollerith ( ) 1890 US census store and process census data on punched cards

5 Charles Babbage (1792-1871) 1822-33 - Difference Engine
compute polynomials for math tables Analytic Engine designed but never completed, ahead of its time Mill - arithmetic computations Store - store data and results Operation cards - program instructions Variable cards - select memory location for ops Output - printer or punch cards

6 Analytic Engine

7 Ada Agusta Daughter of Lord Byron Wrote about analytical engine
Designed several programs for it Known as the first programmer 1970’s Dept. of Defence named its programming language Ada

8 First Computers 1939-42 - ABC - used binary
John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry (Iowa State) (link) small scale vacuum tubes Mark I - programmable electromechanical computer Howard Aiken (Harvard U.) first real analytical engine based on relays & a motor Grace Hopper - debugging Mark II

9 ENIAC - 1946 Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator
Known as first fully electronic computer (link) John Mauchly & J.P. Eckert, U. of Pennsylvania 18,000 vacuum tubes 1,500 relays 20 x 40 foot room low reliability, lots of power, air conditioning

10 von Neumann Architecture
Mauchly, Eckert & von Neumann created EDVAC – Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (binary, stored program) John von Neumann (Princeton) wrote about stored program concept both programs and data stored in same memory basis of almost all modern computers modern computers said to use von Neumann architecture

11 Computer Generations 1st Generation - before 1960
vacuum tubes and relays ENIAC 2nd Generation transistors IBM 7090 3rd Generation integrated circuits or chips IBM 360 4th Generation - after 1980 microprocessors - large-scale integration (link)

12 Fifth-Generation? Japanese Government had plans in 1980s
Build intelligent systems capable of intelligent thought and language recognition Project ended in failure in 1992 – money gone What will fifth generation have? Intelligence? Human behavior? Parallel processing? Multiple cores? Quantum computing? Nanotechnology?

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