Henry II’s Legal Reforms Constitutions of Clarendon: Henry insisted that a jury formally accuse a person of a serious crime. People were tried by royal judges and later by juries. King takes power from nobles
King John and the Magna Carta A king could no longer collect special taxes without the consent of barons and church officials. (No taxation without representation) Habeas corpus: “No free man” could be jailed except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land. Led to rule of law, rather than rule by man. Limited the power of English monarchs
King Edward I and the Model Parliament Model Parliament was an English governing body created by Edward I that included commoners, lower- ranking clergy, church officials, and nobles. Commoners achieve say in government. Weakened the power of the nobility.
The Impact of Political Developments in England royal authority increased; noble authority decreased commoners power increased; noble power decreased seeds of constitutionalism and democracy are sown
The Bubonic Plague In the 14 th century, the plague began in central Asia, spread throughout Eurasia. The term the Black Death probably came from the black spots that appeared on the skin of many of the victims. The bacteria that caused the plague was spread by fleas carried by rats.
Impact of the Bubonic Plague 1. Need for workers, allowed workers to demand more rights and pay. 2. Feudal obligations end, peasants flee to cities. 3. Feudal lords lose power. 4. Leads to peasant revolts. 5. Plague kills about a third of the European population.
The Hundred Years’ War The war began when the king of France challenged England’s claim to French fiefs. The English army relied on archers armed with longbows. Arrows fired from longbows flew farther, faster, and more accurately than those fired from French crossbows.
Joan of Arc Joan was a 17-year-old peasant girl who claimed she heard voices urging her to save France. She led the French army to victories in battle and helped turn the tide in the war. She was burned at the stake as a heretic. Her actions inspired many French people to feel more nationalistic and patriotic.
Impact of the Hundred Years’ War technological advances (cannons, guns, harquebuses, longbows, etc…) end usefulness of knights and castles kings rely on large armies nationalism shifted power away from lords to monarchs commoners were needed as soldiers and workers which gained them greater influence and power