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Organisational Culture

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Presentation on theme: "Organisational Culture"— Presentation transcript:

1 Organisational Culture

2 Mission and values

3 Mission and values

4 Definitions of organisational culture
“The norms that inform people what is acceptable and what is not, the dominant values that the organization cherishes above others, the basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of the organization, the ‘rules’ of the game that must be observed if one is to get along and be accepted as a member, the philosophy that guides the organization in dealing with its employees and its clients” (Owens, 1987, pp ) “How we do things around here” (or “the way things work when nobody is looking”)  

5 Definitions of organisational culture
“The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one organisation from another” (Hofstede, 1991, p.180) Organisational culture appears to be shared, based on values and beliefs, results in rules or norms of behaviour (not always openly stated), and is often unconscious, hidden, assumed (Schein, 1985; Owens, 1987; Garratt, 1991; Kezar and Eckel, 2002).



8 Aspects of organisational culture (Johnson, 1992, in Mullins, 2002, pp 805-806)
Routines: how people behave towards others inside and outside the organisation; how things are done Rituals: special events that show what is considered important Stories: told by people in the organisation and indicate special events and personalities, such as successes, failures, heroes, villains, mavericks Symbols, such as logos, commonly used language, which act as a shorthand representation of the nature of the organisation Power structures: the most powerful individuals in the organisation (may be particular positions or functions) Organisational structures: reflect power structures and include both formal and less formal systems Control systems: the measurement and reward systems that emphasise what is important, such as performance management, OfSTED inspections.



11 Corporate cultures The degree of risk associated with the organisation’s activities The speed at which organisations and their employees receive feedback on the success of decisions or strategies (Deal and Kennedy, 1982)


13 Corporate cultures

14 Organisational cultures (Harrison, 1972, in Handy, 1976)
Power (where power is exercised by a dominant leader)

15 Handy’s (1976) organisational cultures
Role (where there is a strong emphasis on job hierarchy and status, eg a bureaucracy)

16 Handy’s (1976) organisational cultures
Task (where achievement of a goal is paramount)

17 Handy’s (1976) organisational cultures
Person (where the organisation exists to meet the needs of its members).

18 Academic cultures (Bergquist, 1992, in Kezar and Eckel, 2002)
Collegial culture (based on academic disciplines, valuing scholarly engagement) Managerial culture (focused on the goals and purposes of the institution) Developmental culture (based on the personal and professional growth of institutional staff) Negotiating culture (valuing equitable and egalitarian policies and procedures).

19 Disciplinary cultures (Becher, 1994 in Becher and Trowler, 2001)
Pure Applied Hard Pure sciences: atomistic; concerned with universals; impersonal; value-free Technologies: pragmatic; concerned with mastery of physical environment; uses both qualitative and quantitative approaches Soft Humanities and pure social sciences: holistic; concerned with particulars; personal; value-laden Applied social sciences: utilitarian; concerned with semi-professional practice; uses "case" studies and case law to a large extent

20 School cultures (Hargreaves, 1994, p.16)
A formal school culture, characterised by pressure on students to achieve learning goals but weak social cohesion between staff and students A welfarist culture, where relations between staff and students are relaxed and friendly but there is little academic pressure A hothouse culture, which pressurises staff and students to participate in all aspects of school life, academic and social A survivalist culture, characterised by poor social relations and low academic achievement.

21 High value-added schools (Hobby, 2004)
Measuring and monitoring targets and test results (1) A hunger for improvement – high hopes and expectations (18) Raising capability – helping people learn – laying foundations for later success (2) Focusing on the value added – holding hope for every child – every gain a victory (20) Promoting excellence – pushing the boundaries of achievement – world class (23) Making sacrifices to put pupils first (26)

22 ‘Sinking schools’ (Hobby, 2004)
Measuring and monitoring targets and test results (1) Focusing on the value added – holding hope for every child – every gain a victory (20) Recognising personal circumstances – making allowances – toleration – it’s the effort that counts (9) Warmth – humour – repartee – feet on the ground (16) Experimenting – trying new things – looking to the next big idea (12) Working together – learning from each other – sharing resources and ideas – investing in others (8)

23 Cultures linked to improvement (Stoll and Fink, 1996)
 1.   Shared goals: “we know where we’re going” 2.     Responsibility for success: “we cannot fail” 3.     Collegiality: “we’re in this together” 4.     Continuous improvement “we can get better” 5.     Lifelong learning: “learning is for everyone” 6.     Risk taking: “we learn by trying something new” 7.     Support: “there’s always someone there to help” 8.     Mutual respect: “everyone has something to offer” 9.     Openness: “we can discuss our differences” 10. Celebration and humour: “we can feel good about ourselves”

24 Improving school cultures
“Expectations of work and conduct are high – the principal’s expectations of staff and the teachers’ of students. Yet these standards are not perceived to be unreasonable; everyone is supported in striving for them and rewarded for reaching them. For both teachers and students, school is a demanding but enjoyable place to be” (Hargreaves, 1994, p.11)

25 National cultures

26 National cultures Individualism - collectivism:
The degree to which people see themselves or their collective group as more important. Power distance: In high power distance cultures, employees tend to prefer their managers to lead visibly, and paternal-autocratic leadership styles are seen as caring. In low power distance cultures, the opposite is true; employees express a preference for consultative management styles. Uncertainty avoidance: The degree to which people feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations.

27 National Cultures Masculinity-femininity:
High masculinity cultures value status, challenge and achievement, while high femininity cultures value good working relationships and co-operation. Confucian dynamism (long-term vs. short-term orientation): Long-term orientation prefers persistence, thrift, ordering relationships by, and observing, status while a more short-term orientation favours personal stability, protecting “face”, respect for tradition. Hofstede (1991)

28 Organisational culture
Formed by a network of meanings that are both shared and contested Goes beyond the surface level Dynamic and messy (in other words it is continually shifting and cannot be contained in a tidy way) Has multiple levels, from specific interactions to broader societal traditions (Alvesson, 2002).

29 Video Watch the video and then answer the following questions: To what extent do you agree with the views expressed in the video? How far do you think these views are reflected in the literature on organisational culture?

30 Organisational structure
“Structure is the pattern of relationships among positions in the organisation and among members of the organisation. Structure makes possible the application of the process of management and creates a framework of order and command through which the activities of the organisation can be planned, organised, directed and controlled” (Mullins, 2002, p.530).

31 Hierarchy “One hears a great deal today about ‘the end of the hierarchy’. This is blatant nonsense. In any institution, there has to be a final authority, that is, a ‘boss’ – someone who can make the final decisions and who can expect them to be obeyed.” (Drucker, 1999, p.11)

32 Span of control The span of control is the number of people who report to a single manager: too wide, and it is difficult for one person to supervise that number of subordinates; too narrow and middle managers proliferate while individuals feel too closely supervised (Mullins, 2002).

33 Scalar chain The scalar chain is the vertical chain of command: for morale, effective decision-making and communication, there should be as few levels as possible in the scalar chain (Mullins, 2002).

34 The flattened pyramid “In British schools, there has been a move towards a flattened pyramidal structure, with a large group of middle managers having delegated authority. This structure supports a more collegial exercise of power” (Coleman and Earley, 2005, p.61).

35 References Alvesson, M. (2002) Understanding organisational culture. London: Sage Becher, T. and Trowler, P. (2001). Academic tribes and territories. Buckingham: Open University Press/SRHE Coleman, M. and Earley, P. (2005) Leadership and Management in Education Oxford: Oxford University Press Deal, T.E. and Kennedy, A.A. (1982) Corporate cultures: the rites and rituals of corporate life Harmondsworth: Penguin Drucker, P.F. (1999) Management challenges for the 21st century London: Butterworth Heinemann Garratt, B. (1991) “The Cultural Contexts” in Mumford, A. Handbook of Management Development. Aldershot: Gower Handy, C (1976) Understanding organisations Harmondsworth: Penguin Hargreaves, A. (1994) Changing Teachers, Changing Times. London: Cassell Hobby, R. (2004) A Culture for Learning. London: The Hay Group Management available from: Hofstede, G. (1991) Cultures and Organisations, London: Harper Collins

36 References Johnson G., Scholes K. (1993). Exploring Corporate Strategy, 3rd edn, Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall Kezar, A. and Eckel, P.D. (2002)’The effect of institutional culture on change strategies in Higher Education’ The Journal of Higher Education Vol.73, no.4, pp Mullins, L. (2002) Management and organisational behaviour Harlow: Pearson Education Owens, R.G. (1987) Organisational behaviour in education MA: Allyn and Bacon Parsons, T. ‘Some ingredients of a general theory of formal organization’ in Litterer, J.A. (1980) Organizations: Structure and Behaviour. London: Wiley Schein, E.H. (1985) Organizational culture and leadership San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass Stoll, L. and Fink, D. (1996) Changing our schools. Buckingham: Open University Press Tierney, W.G. (1987) ‘The semiotic aspects of leadership: an ethnographic perspective’ American Journal of Semiotics, vol.5, no.2, pp Tierney, W.G. (1991). ‘Organisational culture in higher education: defining the essentials’ in Peterson, M. (ed) ASHE reader on organization and governance. Needham Heights, MA: Ginn Press

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