Presentation on theme: "How it Works and How to Improve it! Copyright 2010:PEER.tamu.edu."— Presentation transcript:
How it Works and How to Improve it! Copyright 2010:PEER.tamu.edu
What We Will Look At: Categories of Memory Associational Cues – – things that you relate the new memory to as well as your emotional state when the memory was made. These will be helpful to use again to recall it. Memory consolidation process – – how we process new information, categorize it and store it.
Categories for Memory Active vs. Passive Declarative vs. Procedural Long Term vs. Short Term
Declarative Memories Are Expressed Explicitly: Declarative Memory: the kind of information you pull from your memory and you can tell about it, write about it or draw it. Telling Writing Drawing concept maps are an example of this.
Procedural Memories Are Expressed Implicitly: Procedural Memory : the kind where you must learn and remember a process or sequence of steps. Learning to type: You must memorize the keys and constantly recall that memory. Learning to ride a bike. Learning to play an instrument.
Passive Memory is a Weak Form of Memory: This is the type of memory that you can remember ONLY if you saw or heard it again (“recognition memory”) Examples: 1. When you can not think of the name of an actor or who sang that song on the radio, but you feel like it is on the “tip of your tongue”. 2. Or when taking a multiple-choice test – you are hoping that information in the test question will help you remember the answer, this is NOT mastering the CONCEPT being taught. This is a weak form of memory!
Active Memory is the Stronger and Better form of Memory This is the kind you can generate on your own, without external prompting (outside help). This is the kind you can actually do work with! This is the best kind for school!
Associational Cues: Cues make it easier to form memories and when used during recall, make it easier to retrieve memories. Kinds of Cues: Classify & categorize like items. Chunk associated items Mental pictures (“peg” systems). Acronyms, acrostics, rhymes, “sound-a-likes.” What was your emotional state when you created the memory? That reminds me of …! We all use cues to remember things, when was the last time you had to remember something and you associated it with something you already knew?
Use Multiple Cues to help you remember! Memory is like a NET! The thing you want to remember is represented by the net, the things in the net are the cues you use to help you remember that idea or topic.
The Cues You Use: Every cue you use increases the ease of remembering the main point. Useful cues include: Facts Situations Feelings Pictures This picture uses smaller graphics to symbolize what resourses are found in Texas.
Short Term Memory Converts (Consolidates) in to Long Term Memory This is the Process of Converting Short-Term to Long-Term Memory Filing memories away in to long term memory will help you remember them for much longer and be able to recall at a later time!!
Information gathered from your five senses: Sight, Sound, Taste, Smell, and Touch, is passed by neurons firing along specific pathways. Working Memory is Held by Neurons Firing Along Certain Pathways This picture shows information entering the brain and being sent through pathways. This illustrates how WORKING MEMORY works.
Working Memory Examples: An example of working memory and short-term memory capacity is looking up a telephone number and being able to dial it correctly on the first try. Another example is trying to repeat names of a group of people in the same order that they were given to you. Luckily we can have numbers texted to us or automatically dialed for us!
Observation and Working Memory Capacity Test Break! Online memory test, copy and paste this address in to you address bar or click on the hyper link: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/m ind/surveys/memory/flash/test.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/m ind/surveys/memory/flash/test.shtml Students will test their working memory capacity skills.
Working Memory Load Interferes with Consolidation : To sum it up: Working memory capacity is very limited! The amount of information interferes with the ability to store it. Do you think this cart is over loaded? That is how your brain feels after a night of cramming!!
Short -Term Memory Lasts Only a Few Seconds, Hours or Days : It is the saving of recent experiences or the retrieval of information from long-term memory for quick usage. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, and stores information for only a short length of time. The Simon Says Memory Game is a game that tests a persons short term memory. Click on the link below to play SIMON: http://www.freegames.w s/games/kidsgames/sim on/mysimon.htm
Short -Term Memory Capacity is Limited: Most studies estimate this limited length of time to be approximately 15 to 30 seconds! Evidence suggests the average capacity of the short-term memory is between five to nine new items! How much information do you really think you retain when you CRAM for a test?
Memory Consolidation: The Transfer of Information Think about times in class when you are learning new information and almost as soon as you heard it, saw it, or read it, you forgot it. Why did you forget it? Take a moment and think about a time you forgot something as quickly as you learned it. Now think about what else was going on that may have distracted you from processing the information and allowing it become stored.
Memory Consolidation Must NOT be Interrupted! Any time the processing of information is interrupted, it is not transferred in to long term memory! Can you think how this might affect how you study????? Why do you feel like there are times you have studied but don’t remember anything????? How can you fix this?
Multi-tasking Impairs Memory It is usually not a good idea to multitask while you are trying to learn new information. It will act as a distracter instead! Multitasking Ultimately: 1. Disrupts consolidation and 2. Prevents recall of information that you know very well.
Memory Consolidation Needs Time and Rehearsal Time, uninterrupted, is needed to integrate all the components of a memory and make the new memories stick. Rehearsal and self-testing, without disruptions, during this time is crucial
Long -Term Memory Stores More Information! Since we now know short-term memory can not sustain us and our ability to learn large amounts of information, let us look at LONG-TERM MEMORY! There are actually three different types (or parts) of long-term memory. A major goal of educators is to help learners store information in long-term memory and to use that information on later occasions in order to effectively solve problems.
3 Types of Long -Term Memory 1.Episodic – memories recalled from events from the past and the pictures in our minds that go with them. 2. Semantic – memories made from making connections to other information. Easiest for us because we network or connect new information to something we already know and understand. 3. Procedural – the kind you use when performing a task and following steps or procedures
Making Long-Term Memory Work: The two main problems related to the use of long-term memory: 1.to transfer the information accurately to long-term memory and 2.to retrieve the information accurately. Students should Rehearse new information almost immediately after learning it and run a Self-Test on the same information later on to see if they can recall it all correctly!
Self-Testing is a Way of Recalling Information: Recalling pictures is easier to do than remembering words. Assign a picture or icon to the new information. Make it a habit to self- test and recall new information shortly after it is presented.
Meaningfulness is Critical for Storing Information! How do we make learning Meaningful???? We have to tie it in with something the student already knows!!!! Students must believe what they are learning is IMPORTANT!! Ask students when they learned something that made sense because it reminded them of something else they already learned…share your experiences with the class. It is important to remember previously learned lessons or concepts, YOU MAY NEED THEM AGAIN IN THE FUTURE!!!
Meaningfulness and Positive Attitude Increase Learning: A Enables Learning!! This means it allows you to learn more easily! A Positive Attitude Enables Learning!! This means it allows you to learn more easily! Students must see value in what they are learning and they must approach it with the attitude of and Students must see value in what they are learning and they must approach it with the attitude of “ I can do this” and “I need to know this.”
Being Motivated Represents a Positive Attitude! Attitude Counts!! How you approach learning affects how you learn!!
Interference and Decay Stop the Process of Storing New Information: Interference occurs when new processed information gets in the way of the old. A new thought will replace the old one. Decay is a more gradual event, as it occurs over periods of time. – If attention to the new information is decreased or stopped, the activation level of the short-term memory decreases. Eventually, it will drop so low that the information becomes irretrievable (gone!).
Protect Early Vulnerable Period % Remembered Time After Learning