Lifestyle factors include: Lifestyle and Health n A persons lifestyle is believed to have a significant effect on their health.
Energy imbalance The main causes of rising obesity levels are poor diet and lack of exercise n High fat content – we eat 50% more fat than in 1960. Fat contains twice the calories of protein and carbohydrate. n Energy expenditure amongst children has decreased by 800 calories a day since the 1950s. n So, not only is the population getting fatter, but it is getting fatter younger
Obesity in the UK During last 25 years, the rate of obesity in adults has quadrupled in the UK. In England, 43% of men and 34% of women were classified as overweight and 22% of men and 23 % of women were classified as clinically obese. This means that over half of all adults weigh more than their recommended weight. (OECD 2005)
Children and Obesity ( (www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ 2005)
Obesity can lead to a variety of health problems. These include: high blood pressure coronary heart disease osteoarthritis diabetes A National Audit Office Study from 2002 estimated that obesity cost the NHS £500 million a year and the cost to the country overall has been put at up to £7.4 billion per annum.
n 1998, news report in the Herald newspaper described the increase in the number of diabetes cases caused by bad diet as the diabetes time bomb n Between now and 2010, the number of Type 11 diabetes sufferers will increase from 1 to 3 million. – Too many cakes and biscuits. – Fizzy drinks – Fatty diet – Not enough exercise n Diabetes could bankrupt the NHS Causes n 1998 news report in the Herald newspaper described the increase in the number of diabetes cases caused by bad diet as the diabetes time bomb. n Between now and 2010, the number of Type II diabetes sufferers will increase from 1 to 3 million. – Too many cakes and biscuits – Fizzy drinks – Fatty diet – Not enough exercise n Diabetes could bankrupt the NHS. Fast Food Industry is the fastest growing area of food area of food retailing and is worth £3b a year in sales.
More females are obese than males. In females, obesity levels are increasing amongst the less well off but remain the same for the better off. In males, obesity levels are increasing amongst both socio- economic groups. Obesity is a gender issue (Report of the Measuring Inequalities in Health Working Group (Scotland), November 2003)
Obesity levels are higher the lower the social class. Social class I – 10% are obese. Obesity levels in the lowest social class are similar to those in the USA. Social class IV – 20% are obese Social class V – 25% are obese. Obesity is also a class issue (Report of the Measuring Inequalities in Health Working Group (Scotland), November 2003)
Most affluent group: No daily fruit Females: 31% Males: 45% Least affluent group: No daily fruit Females : 55% Males: 69% Differences in diet between social classes and genders Graphs show that: n The percentage of people in the least affluent group who do not eat fresh fruit on a daily basis is much higher than in the more affluent group. n Consumption of fruit and vegetables is higher amongst females in both groups. n Consumption of fruit and vegetables on a daily basis has increased generally but the increase has been higher in the more affluent group. n Males in the least affluent group have made little progress.
Most affluent group who do not eat fruit daily Females: 31% Males: 45% Least affluent group who do not eat fruit daily Females : 55% Males: 69% ConditionABC1C2DE Heart67907795117134 Respiratory5658647180102 Digestive303432425370 Musculoskeletal98132141163187235 Incidence of Chronic Illness by Social Class (per 10,000 of population) 1999 Income decreases Link between diet, social class and ill health (Report of the Measuring Inequalities in Health Working Group (Scotland), November 2003)
the highest rates of mortality in the Western world the highest morbidity rates from coronary heart disease, cancer and stroke poor dental record. The James Report In 1993, a Government Working Party produced the James Report on Scotlands diet. The Report confirmed Scotlands poor eating habits and identified it as one of the main causes of Scotlands poor health record. Poor diet was the reason why Scotland had:
1 in 8 children in Scotland are officially overweight. Scottish boys are the fattest in Europe. Almost 100% ate sweets every day. 75% ate crisps and fizzy drinks as snacks every day. 24% of 15 year olds in the West of Scotland eat 4 or more snacks a day. 28% of adults eat fresh fruit and 20% eat fresh vegetables once a week or less. 17% of adults in the district of Renfrew eat less than one full meal a day. Scotland - the facts!
The average Scottish diet is: deficient in fibre and certain vitamins contains too much sugar contains too much salt contains too much saturated fat. deficient in fruit and vegetables The James Report
75% should eat fish twice a week and meat less than twice a week Cereals, granary bread twice a day Most should consume semi- skimmed milk Sweets and cake consumption should be reduced Disadvantaged should be helped to follow a good diet The James Report Recommendations
Ban food adverts on childrens TV Minimum age at which children can leave school at lunchtime Stop sale of sweets, salty snacks, fizzy drinks in schools No junk food outlets near schools Scandinavia has already banned food adverts on childrens TV. Arguments: limits choice? Nanny state gone mad? More controversial recommendations The James Report Recommendations
Benefits to Health of Regular Exercise n 25% of strokes could be avoided and there could be a 20% reduction in mortality after a heart attack, if regular exercise was taken n Yet, according to a Scottish Health Survey (Working Towards a Healthier Scotland, 1999) 62% of women 53% of men do not get enough regular exercise and 26% of women 23% of men do not get any regular exercise.
55-64 0255075 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 65-74Percentage Age group (Working Towards a Healthier Scotland, 1999) Percentage of people taking NO exercise ( (Working Towards a Healthier Scotland, 1999) by age
32% 33% 35% 43% 02550 AB C1 C2 DE 42% 30% Women Men 025 Working Towards a Healthier Scotland, 1999) Percentage of people taking NO exercise ( Working Towards a Healthier Scotland, 1999) by social class by gender