2 Question Paper 2005, Question 6 6 (a) Outline the strengths and weaknesses of this source for a researcher interested in measuring public support for ID cards. (10)6 (b) Suggest, giving reasons, one alternative method by which the information could be presented in order to make it easier for a researcher to use. (5)
3 Question 6:2005Outline the strengthsand weaknesses of thissource for a researcherinterested in measuringpublic support for IDcards. (10)Key word – ‘this source’ – means that you must examine the source of the information very carefully.You should focus on:the fact that it is an opinion pollthe fact that the opinion poll was carried out by MORI, an internationally respected polling companyhow the poll was conducted
4 source for a researcher interested in measuring public support for ID Outline the strengthsand weaknesses of thissource for a researcherinterested in measuringpublic support for IDcards. (10)Question 6:2005date on which the poll was carried outcharacteristics of the samplewho has been sampledand who has been left out?size of the sampleuse of ‘weighting’use of ‘rounding’type of questions asked
5 Question 6: 2005Question asks you to describe and explain the strengths and weaknesses of this source of information.Your answer therefore must be balanced for full marks.This means that you must address both the strengths and the weaknesses.
6 Question 6: 2005If you do not, your answer will be marked out of 6 marks and not 10.Your answer though does not have to be equally balanced.It is possible to achieve 6 marks for strengths and 4 marks for weaknesses or vice versa.
7 Question 6: 2005You will get a lot of credit for developing your points and for providing exemplification.Answers that simply list points will not receive a high mark.Answers that show a lack of knowledge or understanding of the issue will not achieve high marks.
8 Company used to carry out the opinion poll: MORI Strengthsis an internationally respected polling companyhas a lot of experience in carrying out opinion polls; knows importance of sample size, characteristics of sample population etc. and has to stay in business so it has to maintain its credibility as a polling company.has to stay in business so it has to maintain its credibility as a polling company. used by many high profile companies such as market research, newspapers and political parties to gauge public opinion on many issues.is used by many high profile companies such as market research, newspapers and political parties to gauge public opinion on many issues.
9 Company used ‘weighting’ to choose the sample Question 6:2005StrengthsCompany used ‘weighting’ to choose the sampleWeighting ensures that the sample of 1000 people aged 18 and over are representative of the whole population of the UK.Weighting takes into account the following characteristics of the UK population:its age structureits gender structuresocio-economic structure.
10 Use of computer rounding Question 6: 2005WeaknessesMany critics of opinion polls wonder how a sample of around 1000 people can be representative of the opinions of millions of people.Size of sampleUse of computer roundingThis will introduce statistical error into the final results reducing their level of accuracy.
11 Research method used – advantages and disadvantages Question 6: 2005StrengthsAdvantages of telephone interviewing using RDD – Random Digit Dialling.RDD provides a representative probability sample of all telephone users, unlike telephone surveys which rely on registered telephone number lists or directories. (Telephone interviewing has traditionally been regarded as unreliable because of the difficulty of obtaining an unbiased genuinely random sample from the phone book).ICM and Gallup argued that 94% of the population could now be contacted by phone. RDD can be used to contact ex-directory numbers.Good because people who are ex-directory can now be contacted; mainly female, people living on their own – no longer excluded from the sample.
12 Research method used – advantages and disadvantages Question 6: 2005StrengthsResearch method used – advantages and disadvantagesAdvantages of telephone interviewing using RDD – Random Digit Dialling.Telephone interviewing makes it easier and cheaper to get a wider sample in terms of geographical positioning; avoids clustering which happens with postal surveys.Allows for more stringent checks to be carried out on those who are interviewing because they are all based in one central position rather than being spread throughout the country.
13 Research method used – advantages and disadvantages Question 6:2005WeaknessesResearch method used – advantages and disadvantagesDisadvantages of telephone interviewing using RDD – Random Digit Dialling.10% of the UK population do not have a telephone – these people are also excluded from the survey – mainly people in the lower socio-economic groups in society.Still the problem of ‘obtaining a response’- non-contacts and refusals.Still the problem of reliability of information received over the phone. People find it easier to make false comments on the phone. Is the person on the phone who they say they are?
14 Reliability of opinion polls as a source of information Question 6:2005:WeaknessesReliability of opinion polls as a source of informationOpinion polls are inherently limited in their value as predictors because they only represent a ‘snap-shot’ of public opinion at the time the survey is carried out and the results ‘go to press’.Opinion polls can only measure what people say. What people say and actually do are often not the same and so if used to predict how people might vote on the issue, opinion polls are not accurate.
15 Reliability of opinion polls as a source of information Question 6:2005WeaknessesThis poll was carried out between 18 and 23 March 2004 but the results were not published until 23 April 2004.Some of the respondents may well have changed their mind on the issue during that time. Results therefore may not be an accurate reflection of public opinion.
16 Reliability of opinion polls as a source of information Question 6:2005WeaknessesReliability of opinion polls as a source of information1972, 1992 General Elections - opinion polls carried out during the election campaign came under criticism for high level of inaccuracy.Opinion polls since 1970 have predicted the wrong outcome in 5 out 7 elections.
17 Reliability of opinion polls as a source of information Question 6:2005WeaknessesReliability of opinion polls as a source of informationSome people are inclined to give ’politically correct’ answers to questions. This will inevitably increase the chances and size of error in the result.Many critics of opinion polls wonder how a sample of around 1000 people can be representative of the opinions of millions of people.
18 Type of questions asked in the opinion poll 2005Questions are examples of ‘closed questions’ – they give the respondent a choice of answers from a directed list. Gives standardised answers.AdvantagesStandardised answers make it possible to identify patterns and make comparisons between the different groups of people such as between males and females or between working-class and middle-class.Results can be replicated easily to check for reliability.Same questions can be repeated at a future date in order to make comparisons over time – longitudinal study.Reduces possibility of interviewer bias.
19 Type of questions asked in the opinion poll 2005DisadvantagesWith closed questions it is difficult for respondents to elaborate or develop their answers in depth. This means that the results may not be wholly valid in that they do not give a true picture of the respondent’s point of view.Difficult to make generalisations or assumptions based on the results.
20 Question 6:2005Key words – information, presented, easier, a researcher.Consider how the information is presented by MORI e.g.The questions are written in bold.The standardised answers are listed underneath.The number who responded to each standardised answer is given beside it in %s.How could this be improved upon?b) Suggest givingreasons, one alternativeway in which theinformation in the sourcecould be presented inorder to make it easierfor a researcherto use.
21 collected in statistical form can be presented in a variety Primary data that iscollected in statistical formcan be presented in a varietyof graphical ways.Presenting andAnalysing ResultsPresenting data inthis way is veryimportant because ithelps analysis.Question 6:2005
23 Symbols and proportional symbols There is a huge range ofgraphical andcartographicaltechniques availablePresenting andAnalysing ResultsLine graphsBar graphsPie graphsMultiple graphsCircular graphsMirror graphsDot mapsSymbols and proportional symbolsTriangular graphsTablesRose diagramsThe technique you use willdepend on the type ofdata collectedQuestion 6:2005
24 Presenting data Whatever the technique chosen, it should be neat, colourful and annotated, in order to ensure its impact and effectiveness.
25 Presenting field data a labelled axis a title a key and be referred So all diagrams must have:alabelledaxisa titlea keyand bereferredto inthe textcolour
26 Results of Opinion Poll on Identity Cards PresentationTechniquesResults of Opinion Poll on Identity CardsA comparative bar graph is used to show the frequency or amount of a number of different categories or questions.The bars are drawn with a gap in between them, and they are coloured or shaded differently. This is because the categories are unconnected.Percentage10050Questions123KeyYesNoDon’t know
27 Presentation Techniques Results of Question (i) To what extent, if at all, are you in favour of, or opposed to, a national identity card scheme?This method of presenting the results is called a histogram – used when results are connected – ‘yes’, ‘no’, ‘don’t know’It has the same advantages as for a bar graph however in this example three histograms would have to be drawn:one for each questiona different colour could be used for each question.Percentage10050Question (i)YesNoDon’t knowKeyPercentage
28 Results of Opinion Poll on Identity Cards PresentationTechniquesResults of Opinion Poll on Identity CardsPercentage10050Question 1Question 2Question 3This is an example of a comparative bar graph on its side.It has the same advantages as for the vertical presentation.KeyYesNoDon’t know
29 Presentation Techniques Results of Question (i) To what extent, if at all, are you in favour of, or opposed to, a national identity card scheme?Percentage10050YesNoDon’t knowThis is an example of a bar graph on its side.It has the same advantages as for the vertical presentation.KeyPercentage
30 Presentation techniques: Pie chartsQuestion 1 : To what extent, if at all, are you in favour of, or opposed to, a national identity card scheme?
31 Presentation techniques: Pie chartsAdvantagesA pie chart is a good way of showing how a whole is divided up – in this case the answers to the question.Each segment of the pie represents the possible answers to the question.The size of a segment represents the percentage support for that answer e.g. ‘Don’t know’ = 1%.The use of different colours for each segment makes it easier to distinguish between the different levels of support for each answer.
32 Presentation techniques: Question 1 : To what extent, if at all, are you in favour of, or opposed to, a national identity card scheme?Question 2 : For what reasons are you in favour of a national identity card scheme?Question 3 : How much, if anything, do you know about the Government’s proposals to introduce a national identity card scheme for all UK citizens?Presentation techniques:Pie chartsGood way of comparing and analysing the results for all three questions.
33 Question 6(b)2005No marks are given for the choice of alternative method of presentation.Marks are given for the explanation of method chosen e.g. why that method would be easier for a researcher.For full marks you would have to give at least two well developed points.