Presentation on theme: "The Road to War A. What tensions existed between European countries? B. What alliances developed before the war? C. What events caused war declarations?"— Presentation transcript:
The Road to War A. What tensions existed between European countries? B. What alliances developed before the war? C. What events caused war declarations? D. What were 3 expectations people had for the war?
A. TENSIONS 1. France vs. Germany: a. France: humiliated by Germany in 1871 Franco- Prussian War, wants revenge b. Germany: forms alliances with other Great Powers, wants to leave France without allies
TENSIONS (cont’d) 2. Austria-Hungary vs. Serbia: a.Austria-Hungary: German language/culture, annexed Bosnia 1908 (Slavic language/culture) b.Serbia: Slavic language/culture, wanted to annex Bosnia and create a Slavic nation-state -Russia: Slavic language/culture, supported Serbia (“Big Brother” of the Slavs)
B. ALLIANCES 1. Militarism increasing among Great Powers (professional armies, Maxim guns, Dreadnought battleships) 2. Alliances formed: believed to be the way to prevent war (defensive alliances) a. Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy b. Triple Entente (“Understanding”): Britain, France, Russia
C. CHAIN REACTION 1.JUNE 28, 1914: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Sarajevo, Bosnia a. Heir to throne of Austria-Hungary was shot, by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian terrorist (member of Black Hand). 2. “Blank Check”: A-H asks Germany for support, Germany promised full military backing for A-H 3. “Ultimatum”: a list of terms A-H sent to Serbia, Serbia must accept terms or else WAR!
CHAIN REACTION (cont’d) 4. JULY 28, 1914: A-H declares war on Serbia (Serbia rejected ultimatum), Russia mobilizes troops on A-H’s border (to help Serbia) 5. Germany declares war on Russia: Russia also mobilized along Germany’s border, Germany saw as a threat 6. Germany declares war on France: didn’t want to wait for France to act (Germany had enemies on 2 borders—faced a “two-front war”)
CHAIN REACTION (still) 7. Schlieffen Plan: Germany sends troops through Belgium, to surprise attack France 8. Britain declares war on Germany: Belgium close to Britain, Britain had promised to protect Belgium back in 1839 -By August 1914, all Great Powers are at WAR!
D. EXPECTATIONS 1.Traditional Warfare: European warfare followed rules, used same techniques Napoleon’s army had 100 years ago a. Technology (trucks, tanks, machine guns, airplanes, etc.) changed war techniques 2. Glamorous View of War: Taught young men their highest honor was to go to war…war seen as adventurous and exciting a. Technology (machine guns, poison gas, heavy artillery) made war scary and deadly
EXPECTATIONS (cont’d) 3. War Would Be Short: When troops mobilized in August 1914, people predicted “The boys’ll be home by Christmas”! a. War began July 28, 1914…ended November 11, 1918 (dragged on for four years)