Militarism Many of Europe’s countries competed to have the largest military Having a large military made each country think they could never lose. Made war look romantic Alliances The most powerful countries in Europe formed alliances to protect each other and their interests. Thought that it would prevent wars
Imperialism European countries competed to control the world resources. This threatened other countries who continued to increase spending on their militaries to defend their interests. Nationalism Minority ethnic groups wanted to break away from old European empires. Examples: Balkan Region Slavic nations: Poland and Czechoslovakia
World War I was all about the place of Germany in Europe
France and Germany hated each other! When Germany became united country in 1870-1, France went to war to try to stop it … but got WHOPPED!
France also lost Alsace-Lorraine in 1871. The French never forgave the Germans. They wanted REVENGE.
Germany’s BIG problem was that it was IN THE MIDDLE of Europe. That made it VULNERABLE if it came to a war.
Three Emperors’ League Created by German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck Germany, A-H & Russia Solved this problem by keeping friends with RUSSIA and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
Triple Alliance Italy, Germany and Austria-Hungary
Franco-Russian Alliance Russia made an alliance with FRANCE. Although it was only a DEFENSIVE alliance, it was Germany’s worst nightmare!
Triple Entente Russia, Great Britain and France
But Russia was also allied to Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. These nations were Slavic like Russia They hoped their alliance would Russia would help them keep their national independence from Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary controlled Bosnia Bosnia was a Slavic nation in the Balkans Serbia wanted Bosnia to belong to them = nationalism Previous attempts at freeing Bosnia had failed.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Next in line to rule throne for Austria- Hungary Wanted to make Bosnia feel more like Austria-Hungary Decides to visit Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia.
Gavilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914.
Gavrilo Princip after his assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Tinderbox Event
Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and declared war on Serbia. Germany pledged their support for Austria -Hungary. Example of Pan-German nationalism Russia pledged their support for Serbia. Example of Pan-Slavic nationalism
Germany declares war on Russia. France pledges their support for Russia. Germany declares war on France. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France. Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.
World War I Allied Powers: Central Powers : Great Britain France Russia Italy Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire