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1 An Evolutionary and Developmental Framework for Information Behavior Professor Amanda Spink Queensland University of Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "1 An Evolutionary and Developmental Framework for Information Behavior Professor Amanda Spink Queensland University of Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 An Evolutionary and Developmental Framework for Information Behavior Professor Amanda Spink Queensland University of Technology

2 2 My Talk New directions in our understanding of peoples information behavior. 1. Evolutionary framework for information behavior 2. Developmental framework for information behavior 3.Integrated framework for information behavior

3 3 Contemporary Information Behavior Focus Information Behavior is the totality of human behavior in relation to sources and channels of information

4 4 Contemporary Information Behavior Focus Major focus on: - Modeling contemporary human information behaviors -Information seeking problem solving approach -Social, personality, cognitive and cultural aspects of contemporary information behavior. -Information behaviors can longitudinal, iterative and complex -May include interaction with information technologies, e.g., OPACs, Web

5 5 What is IB Research Missing? Based on new approaches in the social sciences – what is information behavior research missing? Evolutionary framework – based on Evolutionary Psychology studies Developmental framework – based on Developmental Psychology studies Integrated framework – integration of IB approaches

6 6 Evolutionary Framework for Information Behavior Information behavior is an important human socio-cognitive ability and competency. Spink, A., & Cole, C. Information behavior: A sociocognitive ability. Evolutionary Psychology, 5(2), 257-274.

7 7 Evolutionary Framework for Information Behavior Socio-cognitive ability as an attribute or trait that is unique and unusual to humans, e.g., language Alexanders Ecological Dominance and Social Competition (EDSC) model (1990) currently provides the most comprehensive overview of human traits in the development of a theory of human evolution, sociality and socio-cognitive abilities.

8 8 Evolution of Information Behavior Evolutionary psychology can help us understand how information behavior has evolved – key issues: How has human information behavior evolved?

9 9 Evolution of Information Behavior How has information behavior affected human evolution? How has evolution affected information behavior?

10 10 Donald (1991) Development of a theory of cognitive evolution Modern human mind developed from the primate mind through a series of major adaptations Emergence of a new representational system building on the cognitive vestiges of earlier stages Development of a modern human cognitive architecture

11 11 Mithen (1996, 1998) First symbolic representations occurred because of a dramatic transformation in human cognitive architecture. Allowing homo-sapien hunter-gatherers to survive while other human species (Neanderthals) did not. Hunter-gatherers became more efficient at exploiting their environment, more able to cope with environmental extremes, and more flexible in social behaviour.

12 12 Wynn & Coolidge (2003, 2004) Information behavior evolved from Neanderthals when Homo sapiens experienced enhanced working memory (EWM) capacity

13 13 Wynn & Coolidge (2003, 2004) Led to Homo sapiens enhancement of specific human cognitive capabilities, including - integrated action across space and time, response inhibition and preparation.

14 14 Wynn & Coolidge (2003, 2004) Enhanced cognitive information processing ability to hold a variety of information in active attention. Gave Homo sapiens develop managed foraging systems and agriculture.

15 15 Evolution of Information Behavior EWM gave Homo sapiens an advantage in collecting, processing and retrieving associated structures from memory that led to creative or in habitual reactions when performing a task. Led to the development of information behaviors as important socio-cognitive ability and also human libraries.

16 16 Developmental Framework for Information Behavior – Lifetime Model Developmental psychology tells us that human lifetimes consist of transitions in an individuals development. An individuals information behavior develops as a socio-cognitive ability from childhood, adolescence to adulthood. What are the transitions in the cognitive and cultural development information behavior development?

17 17 Human Development? Human development – the ways in which children grow to become healthy, educated and productive members of societies and nations. Human development – continues throughout childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Development psychology – studies human development including changes across generations and during the life course.

18 18 Rogoff (2003) Human Development Lack of generality of human development stages across situations from individual development trajectories. Dichotomy between cognitive and social/cultural forces Combination of genetic and environmental influences

19 19 Rogoff (2003) Human Development Few regularities that characterise patterns of cultural processes Cognitive development occurs in natural contexts of human interaction distributed across time and space.

20 20 Rogoff (2003) Human Development Cultural aspects of human development, such as transitions across the life span, gender roles, interpersonal relations, cognitive development and socialisation. Child and adult performances in certain skills reveal changes in age, in learning, memory, conceptualising, language, reasoning and problem solving - scaffolding of learning.

21 21 Information Behavior Development Need for research to determine the patterns of variation and similarities in cognitive development and cultural practices that contribute the development of information behavior.

22 22 Integrated Framework for Information Behavior Information behavior – integrating various approaches, including both active and passive information behaviors Information foraging Information seeking Information sense-making/everyday life information seeking Information organising Information use

23 23 Spink & Cole (2006): Integrated Information Behavior Model ELISSense-making CoherenceMastery of Life Mastery of Life Small Worlds Coherence ProblemProblem Problem Problem Problem SolvingIdentification Definition Resolution Presentation ASK Gap InformationDiet/ Scent/Attention Patches ForagingMaximizes Gains

24 24 Key Research Challenges Evolutionary Framework - Understanding how information behavior evolved as a socio-cognitive ability Developmental Framework - Lifetime developmental models of peoples information behaviors Integrated Framework - Integrated information behavior model

25 25 Key Research Challenges Help develop and promote positive change across the human lifespan and develop positive interventions Help people learn and think more about their information behaviors

26 26 References Spink, A., & Cole, C. Information behavior: A sociocognitive ability. Evolutionary Psychology, 5(2), 257-274. Spink, A., & Cole, C. B. (2006). Human information behavior: Integrating diverse approaches and information use. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(1) 25- 35. Spink, A., & Cole, C. B. (Eds.). (2006). New Directions in Human Information Behavior. Dordrecht: Springer. Spink, A., & Currier, J. (2006). Toward an evolutionary perspective on human Information behavior: An exploratory study. Journal of Documentation, 62(2), 171-193. Spink, A., & Jansen, B. J. (2004). Web Search: Public Searching of the Web. Dordrecht: Springer.

27 27 Questions? Thank You

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